Login processing...

Trial ends in Request Full Access Tell Your Colleague About Jove
Click here for the English version



Published: January 29, 2015 doi: 10.3791/51879
* These authors contributed equally


哺乳類の神経細胞の形態および機能の高分解能分析は、多くの場合、ニューロンの初代培養物の分析を行った個々の動物の遺伝子型決定を必要とする。遺伝子型を決定する新生マウス、迅速な遺伝子型判定を標識し、そしてこれらのマウスからの脳のニューロンの低密度培養を確立する:我々はのための一連の手順について説明します。個々のマウスは、大人になって持続長期的な識別を可能に入れ墨の標識で標識されている。説明されたプロトコルによる遺伝子型決定は、高速かつ効率的で、かつ信頼性よく、核酸の自動抽出が可能になる。これは、従来の遺伝子型判定のための十分な時間が新生児致死苦しむマウスでは、例えば 、利用できない状況下で有用です。初代ニューロン培養物を、高い空間分解能で画像化実験を可能にし、低密度で生成される。この培養方法は、従来の神経めっきグリアフィーダー層の調製を必要とする。 Protocolは、運動障害DYT1ジストニア(ΔE-torsinAノックインマウス)のマウスモデルにその全体が印加され、神経細胞培養物を、これらのマウスの海馬、大脳皮質および線条体から調製される。このプロトコルは、他の遺伝子の突然変異を有するマウスに、ならびに他の種の動物に適用することができる。さらに、プロトコルの個々の成分は、単離されたサブプロジェクトのために使用することができる。したがって、このプロトコルは、神経科学ではなく、生物学的および医学科学の他の分野だけでなく、幅広い応用を持つことになります。


Name Company Catalog Number Comments
REAGENTS - tattooing
Machine Cleanser Animal Identification and Marking Systems, Inc. NMCR3 This is used to clean the needles and the holder after tattooing.
Machine Drying Agent Animal Identification and Marking Systems, Inc. NDAR4 This is used to dry the needles and holder after cleaning.
Neonate Tattoo Black Pigment Animal Identification and Marking Systems, Inc. NBP01
Skin Prep Applicator Animal Identification and Marking Systems, Inc. NSPA1 Q-tip.
Skin Prep solution Animal Identification and Marking Systems, Inc. NSP01 This reagent delivers a thin layer of oil that enhances the efficiency of tattooing and prevents tattoo fading, by (information from vendor): 1) preventing non-tattooed skin from being stained temporarily, thereby allowing the quality of a paw pad tattoo to be easily evaluated before the pup is returned to its home cage – the stained skin surface can be confused with the tattooed skin, 2) reducing skin damage during tattooing – softening the skin and lubricating the needle will help the needle penetrate the skin without causing skin damage, and 3) preventing molecular oxygen from entering the skin, thereby reducing inflammatory responses to reactive oxygen species that can be generated.
REAGENTS - genotyping
EZ Fast Tissue/Tail PCR Genotyping Kit (Strip Tube Format) EZ BioResearch LLC G2001-100
2X PCR Ready Mix II EZ BioResearch LLC G2001-100 A red, loading dye for electrophoresis is included in the 2X PCR Ready Mix solution.
Tissue Lysis Solution A EZ BioResearch LLC G2001-100 Prepare DNA Extraction Solution by mixing 20 µl of Tissue Lysis Solution A and 180 µl of Tissue Lysis Solution B per specimen.
Tissue Lysis Solution B EZ BioResearch LLC G2001-100 Prepare DNA Extraction Solution by mixing 20 µl of Tissue Lysis Solution A and 180 µl of Tissue Lysis Solution B per specimen.
Acetic acid, glacial VWR BDH 3092
Agarose optimized grade, molecular biology grade rpi A20090-500  We use 2% agarose gels in TAE buffer containing the SYBR Safe DNA gel stain (diluted 10,000-fold) or ethidium bromide (0.5 µg/ml gel volume).
Ethidium bromide Sigma-Aldrich E7637-1G
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, disodium salt dihydrate (EDTA) Fisher BP120-500
Filtered Pipet Tips, Aerosol-Free, 0.1-10 µl Dot Scientific Inc UG104-96RS  Use pipette tips that are sterile and free of DNA, RNase and DNase. For all steps involving DNA, use filtered pipette tips to avoid cross-contamination.
Filtered Pipet Tips, Premium Fit Filter Tips, 0.5-20 µl Dot Scientific Inc UG2020-RS Use pipette tips that are sterile and free of DNA, RNase and DNase. For all steps involving DNA, use filtered pipette tips to avoid cross-contamination.
Filtered Pipet Tips, Premium Fit Filter Tips, 1-200 µl Dot Scientific Inc UG2812-RS Use pipette tips that are sterile and free of DNA, RNase and DNase. For all steps involving DNA, use filtered pipette tips to avoid cross-contamination.
Molecular weight marker, EZ DNA Even Ladders 100 bp EZ BioResearch LLC L1001 We use either of these three molecular weight markers.
Molecular weight marker, EZ DNA Even Ladders 1000 bp EZ BioResearch LLC L1010
Molecular weight marker, TrackIt, 100 bp DNA Ladder GIBCO-Invitrogen 10488-058
PCR tubes, 8-tube strips with individually attached dome top caps, natural, 0.2 ml  USA Scientific 1402-2900 Use tubes that are sterile and free of DNA, RNase and DNase. An 8-tube strip is easy to handle and to group the specimens than individual tubes.
PCR tubes, Ultraflux Individual  rpi 145660 Use tubes that are sterile and free of DNA, RNase and DNase.
Seal-Rite 0.5 ml microcentrifuge tube, natural USA Scientific 1605-0000 Use tubes that are sterile and free of DNA, RNase and DNase.
SYBR Safe DNA gel stain * 10,000x concentration in DMSO GIBCO-Invitrogen S33102
Tris base rpi T60040-1000
Primers for amplifying Tor1a gene in ΔE-torsinA knock-in mice 5'-AGT CTG TGG CTG GCT CTC CC-3' (forward) and 5'-CCT CAG GCT GCT CAC AAC CAC-3' (reverse) (reference 18). These primers were used at a final concentration of 1.0 ng/µl (~0.16 µM) (reference 2).
Primers for amplifying Tfap2a gene in wild-type mice 5'-GAA AGG TGT AGG CAG AAG TTT GTC AGG GC-3' (forward), 5'-CGT GTG GCT GTT GGG GTT GTT GCT GAG GTA-3' (reverse) for the 498-bp amplicon, 5'-CAC CCT ATC AGG GGA GGA CAA CTT TCG-3' (forward), 5'-AGA CAC TCG GGC TTT GGA GAT CAT TC-3' (reverse) for the 983-bp amplicon, and 5'-CAC CCT ATC AGG GGA GGA CAA CTT TCG-3' (forward), 5'-ACA GTG TAG TAA GGC AAA GCA AGG AG-3' (reverse) for the 1990-bp amplicon. These primers are used at 0.5 µM.
REAGENTS - cell culture
5-Fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine Sigma-Aldrich F0503-100MG See comments section of uridine for more information.
B-27 supplement GIBCO-Invitrogen 17504-044
Cell Culture Dishes 35 x 10 mm Dishes, Tissue Culture-treated BD falcon 353001
Cell Culture Flasks, T25, Tissue Culture-treated, Canted-neck, plug-seal cap, 25 cm2 Growth Area, 70 ml BD falcon 353082
Cell Culture Flasks, T75, Tissue Culture-treated, Canted-neck, vented cap, 75 cm2 Growth Area, 250 ml BD falcon 353136
Conical Tube, polypropylene, 15 ml BD falcon 352095
Countess (cell number counter) chamber slides GIBCO-Invitrogen C10312
Cytosine β-D-Arabinofuranoside hydrochloride (Ara-C hydrochloride) Sigma-Aldrich C6645-100mg
D-(+)-Glucose (Dextrose) anhydrous, SigmaUltra, 99.5% (GC) Sigma-Aldrich G7528-250G
Dish, Petri glass 100 x 15 mm Pyrex 3160-101
Distilled water GIBCO-Invitrogen 15230-147
DNase Type II Sigma-Aldrich D4527-200KU Stock solution is prepared at 1,500 units/20 μl = 75,000 units/ml in distilled water.
Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), high glucose, GlutaMAX, pyruvate GIBCO-Invitrogen 10569-010, 500 ml
Fast PES Filter Unit, 250 ml, 50 mm diameter membrane, 0.2 µm Pore Size Nalgene 568-0020
Fast PES Filter Unit, 500 ml, 90 mm diameter membrane, 0.2 µm Pore Size Nalgene 569-0020
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) GIBCO-Invitrogen 26140-079
Glass coverslip, 12 mm Round, thickness 0.09–0.12 mm, No. 0 Carolina 633017
GlutaMAX-I GIBCO-Invitrogen 35050-061
Hanks' Balanced Salts Sigma-Aldrich H2387-10X
HEPES, ≥99.5% (titration) Sigma-Aldrich H3375-250G
Hydrochloric acid, 37%, A.C.S reagent Sigma-Aldrich 258148-100 ML
Insulin Sigma-Aldrich I5500-250 mg
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, MgSO4•(7H2O), BioUltra, ≥99.5% (Fluka) Sigma-Aldrich 63138-250G
Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix solution, Phenol Red-Free BD Biosciences 356237 This is the coating material for coverslips and flasks. 1) To prepare it, thaw the Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix solution on ice, which usually takes ~1 day. Using a pre-cooled pipette, aliquot the thawed solution into pre-cooled T25 flasks on ice, and store the flasks at -20 °C. To prepare the working Matrigel solution, thaw the aliquotted Matrigel in a flask on ice, dilute 50-fold by adding pre-cooled MEM solution and keep the diluted solution at 4 °C. It is important to pre-cool all cultureware and media that come into contact with Matrigel, except during and after the coating of coverslips, to prevent it from prematurely forming a gel. 2) To coat the glass coverslips or culture flasks with Matrigel, apply the Matrigel solution to the surface. Before plating cells, it is important to completely dry up the surface. For this purpose, it might be helpful to aspirate Matrigel during the cellular centrifugation immediately before plating the cells and to allow enough time for drying.
Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) GIBCO-Invitrogen 51200-038
MITO+ Serum Extender, 5 ml BD Biosciences 355006
Multiwell Plates, Tissue Culture-treated 24-well plate BD falcon 353047
Multiwell Plates, Tissue Culture-treated 6-well plate BD falcon 353046
Neurobasal-A Medium (1X), liquid GIBCO-Invitrogen 10888-022
Nitric Acid VWR bdh 3044
NS (Neuronal Supplement) 21  prepared in the lab Source: reference 69
Pasteur pipets, 5 ¾”  Fisher 13-678-6A Use this cotton-plugged 5 ¾” Pasteur pipette for cellular trituration. Fire-polish the tip beforehand to smooth the cut surface and to reduce the internal diameter to 50-80% of the original. Too small a tip will disrupt the cells and reduce cell viability, but too large a tip will decrease the efficiency of trituration.
Pasteur pipets, 9”  Fisher 13-678-6B
Potassium chloride (KCl), SigmaUltra, ≥99.0% Sigma-Aldrich P9333-500G
Serological pipet, 2 ml BD falcon 357507
Serological pipet, 5 ml  BD falcon 357543
Serological pipet, 10 ml BD falcon 357551
Serological pipet, 25 ml BD falcon 357525
Serological pipet, 50 ml  BD falcon 357550
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, Sodium hydrogen carbonate), SigmaUltra, ≥99.5% Sigma-Aldrich S6297-250G
Sodium chloride (NaCl), SigmaUltra, ≥99.5% Sigma-Aldrich S7653-250G
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), pellets, 99.998% trace metals basis Sigma-Aldrich 480878-250G
Sodium phosphate dibasic heptahydrate (Na2HPO4•(7H2O)), ≥99.99%, Aldrich Sigma-Aldrich 431478-250G
Sucrose, SigmaUltra, ≥99.5% (GC) Sigma-Aldrich S7903-250G
Syringe filter, sterile, 0.2 µm Corning 431219
Syringe, 3 ml BD falcon 309585
Transferrin, Holo, bovine plasma Calbiochem 616420
Trypan Blue stain, 0.4% GIBCO-Invitrogen T10282 This is used for counting live/dead cells. Renew an old trypan blue solution if it is re-used many times (e.g. several times a week for several weeks), because it will form precipitates and result in erroneous readouts of cellular density.
Trypsin, type XI Sigma-Aldrich T1005-5G
Trypsin-EDTA solution, 0.25%  GIBCO-Invitrogen 25200-056
Uridine Sigma-Aldrich U3003-5G Stock solution is prepared at 50-mg 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine and 125 mg uridine in 25 ml DMEM (8.12 and 20.48 mM, respectively).
REAGENTS - immunocytochemistry
Antibody, rabbit polyclonal anti-MAP2 Merck Millipore AB5622
Antibody, mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP cocktail Merck Millipore NE1015
EQUIPMENT - tattooing
AIMS Animal Identification and Marking Systems, Inc. NEO–9 This Neonate Rodent Tattooing System is an electric system that works by rapidly moving 1- or 3-point tattoo needles vertically into the skin. Activate the tattoo machine once for approximately 0.5 sec, while the tattoo needle tips are kept perpendicular to the skin surface. We prefer three-needle tattooing to maximize the tattooed area, but one-needle tattooing is effective on narrower areas, e.g. the toes, or if fine mechanical control is necessary, e.g. when numbers are tattooed. Two rounds of tattooing at the slowest speed (setting "1" out of 3 steps) are typically sufficient to produce a visible and long-lasting tattoo of the paw pads.
EQUIPMENT - genotyping
Electrophoresis system, horizontal, Wide Mini–Sub Cell GT BIO–RAD 170–4405 Typical electrophoresis parameters are electrical field strength at 6 V/cm and 25 min duration for a 10 cm gel.
FluorChem 8800 ProteinSimple FluorChem 8800
PCR, MJ Mini Thermal Cycler BIO-RAD PTC-1148EDU Our PCR reactions for the Tor1a gene in ΔE-torsinA knock-in mice are as follows: 1 cycle of denaturation at 94 °C for 3 min, 35 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 30 sec, annealing at 58 °C for 30 sec, extension at 72 °C for 2 min. This is followed by final extension at 72 °C for 10 min, and holding at 4 °C.
Power supply, PowerPac Basic BIO-RAD 164-5050
EQUIPMENT - cell culture
Automated cell counter, Countess GIBCO-Invitrogen C10310 This automated cell counter separately measures the densities of live and dead cells (non stained and stained by trypan blue, respectively). It is important to know the optimal range of density measurements: the counter that we use has the highest accuracy in the range from 1 x 105 to 4 x 106 cells/ml. If the measured cell density values fall outside the recommended range, adjust the resuspension volume appropriately.
Biological Safety Cabinet, Class II, Type A2 NUAIRE NU-425-400 This hood is used for all cell culture procedures, except for brain dissection.
CO2 Incubator, AutoFlow, Humidity Control Water Jacket NUAIRE NU-4850
Horizontal Clean Bench NUAIRE NU-201-330 This clean bench is used for brain dissection (steps 3.1.1 and 3.1.2 of "Brain Dissection and Cellular Dissociation)".
Orbit LS Low Speed Shaker Labnet S2030-LS-B
SORVALL RC-6 Plus Superspeed Centrifuge Fisher 46910 (centrifuge)/46922 (rotor)



  1. Goslin, K., Asmussen, H., Banker, G. Ch. 13. Culturing Nerve Cells. Banker, G., Goslin, K. MIT Press. 339-370 (1998).
  2. Kakazu, Y., Koh, J. Y., Ho, K. W., Gonzalez-Alegre, P., Harata, N. C. Synaptic vesicle recycling is enhanced by torsinA that harbors the DYT1 dystonia mutation. Synapse. 66, 453-464 (2012).
  3. Kakazu, Y., Koh, J. Y., Iwabuchi, S., Gonzalez-Alegre, P., Harata, N. C. Miniature release events of glutamate from hippocampal neurons are influenced by the dystonia-associated protein torsinA. Synapse. 66, 807-822 (2012).
  4. Iwabuchi, S., Kakazu, Y., Koh, J. Y., Harata, N. C. Abnormal cytoplasmic calcium dynamics in central neurons of a dystonia mouse model. Neurosci. Lett. 548, 61-66 (2013).
  5. Koh, J. Y., Iwabuchi, S., Harata, N. C. Dystonia-associated protein torsinA is not detectable at the nerve terminals of central neurons. Neuroscience. 253C, 316-329 (2013).
  6. Iwabuchi, S., Koh, J. Y., Wang, K., Ho, K. W., Harata, N. C. Minimal change in the cytoplasmic calcium dynamics in striatal GABAergic neurons of a DYT1 dystonia knock-in mouse model. PLoS One. 8, e80793 (2013).
  7. Dahlborn, K., Bugnon, P., Nevalainen, T., Raspa, M., Verbost, P., Spangenberg, E. Report of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations Working Group on animal identification. Lab. Anim. 47, 2-11 (2013).
  8. Kawano, H., et al. Long-term culture of astrocytes attenuates the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. PLoS One. 7, e48034 (2012).
  9. Ozelius, L. J., et al. The early-onset torsion dystonia gene (DYT1) encodes an ATP-binding protein. Nat. Genet. 17, 40-48 (1997).
  10. Hanson, P. I., Whiteheart, S. W. AAA+ proteins: have engine, will work. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 6, 519-529 (2005).
  11. White, S. R., Lauring, B. AAA+ ATPases: achieving diversity of function with conserved machinery. Traffic. 8, 1657-1667 (2007).
  12. Burdette, A. J., Churchill, P. F., Caldwell, G. A., Caldwell, K. A. The early-onset torsion dystonia-associated protein, torsinA, displays molecular chaperone activity in vitro. Cell Stress Chaperones. 15, 605-617 (2010).
  13. Zhao, C., Brown, R. S., Chase, A. R., Eisele, M. R., Schlieker, C. Regulation of Torsin ATPases by LAP1 and LULL1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, E1545-1554 (2013).
  14. Ozelius, L. J., Lubarr, N., Bressman, S. B. Milestones in dystonia. Mov. Disord. 26, 1106-1126 (2011).
  15. Albanese, A., et al. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update. Mov. Disord. 28, 863-873 (2013).
  16. Goodchild, R. E., Kim, C. E., Dauer, W. T. Loss of the dystonia-associated protein torsinA selectively disrupts the neuronal nuclear envelope. Neuron. 48, 923-932 (2005).
  17. Dang, M. T., et al. Generation and characterization of Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mouse as a model for early-onset dystonia. Exp. Neurol. 196, 452-463 (2005).
  18. Tanabe, L. M., Martin, C., Dauer, W. T. Genetic background modulates the phenotype of a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. PLoS One. 7, e32245 (2012).
  19. Huang, Z., Xu, H., Sandell, L. Negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by transcription factor AP-2α. J. Bone Miner. Res. 19, 245-255 (2004).
  20. Hall, R. D., Lindholm, E. P. Organization of motor and somatosensory neocortex in the albino rat. Brain Res. 66, 23-38 (1974).
  21. Kavalali, E. T., Klingauf, J., Tsien, R. W. Activity-dependent regulation of synaptic clustering in a hippocampal culture system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96, 12893-12900 (1999).
  22. Iwaki, S., Matsuo, A., Kast, A. Identification of newborn rats by tattooing. Lab. Anim. 23, 361-364 (1989).
  23. Wang, L. A primer on rodent identification methods. Lab. Anim. 34, 64-67 (2005).
  24. Deacon, R. M. Housing, husbandry and handling of rodents for behavioral experiments). Nat. Protoc. 1, 936-946 (2006).
  25. Castelhano-Carlos, M. J., Sousa, N., Ohl, F., Baumans, V. Identification methods in newborn C57BL/6 mice: a developmental and behavioural evaluation. Lab. Anim. 44, 88-103 (2010).
  26. Schaefer, D. C., Asner, I. N., Seifert, B., Burki, K., Cinelli, P. Analysis of physiological and behavioural parameters in mice after toe clipping as newborns. Lab. Anim. 44, 7-13 (2010).
  27. Doan, L., Monuki, E. S. Rapid genotyping of mouse tissue using Sigma's Extract-N-Amp Tissue PCR. Kit. J. Vis. Exp. e626 (2008).
  28. Chum, P. Y., Haimes, J. D., Andre, C. P., Kuusisto, P. K., Kelley, M. L. Genotyping of plant and animal samples without prior DNA purification. J. Vis. Exp. e3844 (2012).
  29. Demeestere, I., et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone accelerates mouse oocyte development in vivo. Biol. Reprod. 87, (3), 1-11 (2012).
  30. Warner, D. R., Wells, J. P., Greene, R. M., Pisano, M. M. Gene expression changes in the secondary palate and mandible of Prdm16-/- mice. Cell Tissue Res. 351, 445-452 (2013).
  31. Higgins, D., Banker, G. Ch. 3. Culturing Nerve Cells. Banker, G., Goslin, K. MIT Press. 37-78 (1998).
  32. Ahlemeyer, B., Baumgart-Vogt, E. Optimized protocols for the simultaneous preparation of primary neuronal cultures of the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum from individual newborn (P0.5) C57Bl/6J mice. J. Neurosci. Methods. 149, 110-120 (2005).
  33. Nunez, J. Primary culture of hippocampal neurons from P0 newborn rats. J. Vis. Exp. e895. (19), e895 (2008).
  34. Viesselmann, C., Ballweg, J., Lumbard, D., Dent, E. W. Nucleofection and primary culture of embryonic mouse hippocampal and cortical neurons. J. Vis. Exp. e2373 (2011).
  35. Leach, M. K., et al. The culture of primary motor and sensory neurons in defined media on electrospun poly-L-lactide nanofiber scaffolds. J. Vis. Exp. e2389 (2011).
  36. Beaudoin, G. M. 3rd, et al. Culturing pyramidal neurons from the early postnatal mouse hippocampus and cortex. Nat. Protoc. 7, 1741-1754 (2012).
  37. Seibenhener, M. L., Wooten, M. W. Isolation and culture of hippocampal neurons from prenatal mice. J. Vis. Exp. e3634 (2012).
  38. Pacifici, M., Peruzzi, F. Isolation and culture of rat embryonic neural cells: a quick protocol. J. Vis. Exp. e3965 (2012).
  39. Tischbirek, C. H., et al. Use-dependent inhibition of synaptic transmission by the secretion of intravesicularly accumulated antipsychotic drugs. Neuron. 74, 830-844 (2012).
  40. Nakanishi, K., Nakanishi, M., Kukita, F. Dual intracellular recording of neocortical neurons in a neuron-glia co-culture system. Brain Res. Brain Res. Protoc. 4, 105-114 (1999).
  41. Kaech, S., Banker, G. Culturing hippocampal neurons. Nat. Protoc. 1, 2406-2415 (2006).
  42. Kaech, S., Huang, C. F., Banker, G. General considerations for live imaging of developing hippocampal neurons in culture. Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. 2012, (3), 312-318 (2012).
  43. Song, H., Stevens, C. F., Gage, F. H. Astroglia induce neurogenesis from adult neural stem cells. Nature. 417, 39-44 (2002).
  44. Tang, X., et al. Astroglial cells regulate the developmental timeline of human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 11, 743-757 (2013).
  45. Ivkovic, S., Ehrlich, M. E. Expression of the striatal DARPP-32/ARPP-21 phenotype in GABAergic neurons requires neurotrophins in vivo and in vitro. J. Neurosci. 19, 5409-5419 (1999).
  46. Kaneko, A., Sankai, Y. Long-term culture of rat hippocampal neurons at low density in serum-free medium: combination of the sandwich culture technique with the three-dimensional nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix. PLoS One. 9, e102703 (2014).
  47. Wang, X. F., Cynader, M. S. Effects of astrocytes on neuronal attachment and survival shown in a serum-free co-culture system. Brain Res. Brain Res. Protoc. 4, 209-216 (1999).
  48. Fath, T., Ke, Y. D., Gunning, P., Gotz, J., Ittner, L. M. Primary support cultures of hippocampal and substantia nigra neurons. Nat. Protoc. 4, 78-85 (2009).
  49. Shimizu, S., Abt, A., Meucci, O. Bilaminar co-culture of primary rat cortical neurons and glia. J. Vis. Exp. e3257 (2011).
  50. Mennerick, S., Que, J., Benz, A., Zorumski, C. F. Passive and synaptic properties of hippocampal neurons grown in microcultures and in mass cultures. J. Neurophysiol. 73, 320-332 (1995).
  51. Chen, G., Harata, N. C., Tsien, R. W. Paired-pulse depression of unitary quantal amplitude at single hippocampal synapses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 1063-1068 (2004).
  52. Albuquerque, C., Joseph, D. J., Choudhury, P., MacDermott, A. B. Dissection, plating, and maintenance of dorsal horn neuron cultures. Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. 2009, (2009).
  53. Xu, H. P., Gou, L., Dong, H. W. Study glial cell heterogeneity influence on axon growth using a new coculture method. J. Vis. Exp. e2111 (2010).
  54. Daniel, J. A., Galbraith, S., Iacovitti, L., Abdipranoto, A., Vissel, B. Functional heterogeneity at dopamine release sites. J. Neurosci. 29, 14670-14680 (2009).
  55. Calakos, N., Schoch, S., Sudhof, T. C., Malenka, R. C. Multiple roles for the active zone protein RIM1α in late stages of neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 42, 889-896 (2004).
  56. Garcia-Junco-Clemente, P., et al. Cysteine string protein-α prevents activity-dependent degeneration in GABAergic synapses. J. Neurosci. 30, 7377-7391 (2010).
  57. Hogins, J., Crawford, D. C., Zorumski, C. F., Mennerick, S. Excitotoxicity triggered by Neurobasal culture medium. PLoS One. 6, e25633 (2011).
  58. Panatier, A., Vallee, J., Haber, M., Murai, K. K., Lacaille, J. C., Robitaille, R. Astrocytes are endogenous regulators of basal transmission at central synapses. Cell. 146, 785-798 (2011).
  59. Noble, M., Mayer-Proschel, M. Ch. 18. Culturing Nerve Cells. Banker, G., Goslin, K. MIT Press. 499-543 (1998).
  60. Ahlemeyer, B., Kehr, K., Richter, E., Hirz, M., Baumgart-Vogt, E., Herden, C. Phenotype, differentiation, and function differ in rat and mouse neocortical astrocytes cultured under the same conditions. J. Neurosci. Methods. 212, 156-164 (2013).
  61. Malgaroli, A., Tsien, R. W. Glutamate-induced long-term potentiation of the frequency of miniature synaptic currents in cultured hippocampal neurons. Nature. 357, 134-139 (1992).
  62. Ryan, T. A., Reuter, H., Wendland, B., Schweizer, F. E., Tsien, R. W., Smith, S. J. The kinetics of synaptic vesicle recycling measured at single presynaptic boutons. Neuron. 11, 713-724 (1993).
  63. Harata, N. C., Choi, S., Pyle, J. L., Aravanis, A. M., Tsien, R. W. Frequency-dependent kinetics and prevalence of kiss-and-run and reuse at hippocampal synapses studied with novel quenching methods. Neuron. 49, 243-256 (2006).
  64. Yamamoto, M., Steinbusch, H. W., Jessell, T. M. Differentiated properties of identified serotonin neurons in dissociated cultures of embryonic rat brain stem. J. Cell Biol. 91, 142-152 (1981).
  65. Nakajima, Y., Masuko, S. A technique for culturing brain nuclei from postnatal rats. Neurosci. Res. 26, 195-203 (1996).
  66. Arttamangkul, S., Torrecilla, M., Kobayashi, K., Okano, H., Williams, J. T. Separation of μ-opioid receptor desensitization and internalization: endogenous receptors in primary neuronal cultures. J. Neurosci. 26, 4118-4125 (2006).
  67. O'Farrell, C. A., Martin, K. L., Hutton, M., Delatycki, M. B., Cookson, M. R., Lockhart, P. J. Mutant torsinA interacts with tyrosine hydroxylase in cultured cells. Neuroscience. 164, 1127-1137 (2009).
  68. Jiang, M., Deng, L., Chen, G. High Ca2+-phosphate transfection efficiency enables single neuron gene analysis. Gene Ther. 11, 1303-1311 (2004).
  69. Chen, Y., Stevens, B., Chang, J., Milbrandt, J., Barres, B. A., Hell, J. W. NS21: re-defined and modified supplement B27 for neuronal cultures. J. Neurosci. Methods. 171, 239-247 (2008).
  70. Robert, F., Hevor, T. K. Abnormal organelles in cultured astrocytes are largely enhanced by streptomycin and intensively by gentamicin. Neuroscience. 144, 191-197 (2007).
  71. Robert, F., Cloix, J. F., Hevor, T. Ultrastructural characterization of rat neurons in primary culture. Neuroscience. 200, 248-260 (2012).
Play Video

Cite this Article

Koh, J. Y., Iwabuchi, S., Huang, Z., Harata, N. C. Rapid Genotyping of Animals Followed by Establishing Primary Cultures of Brain Neurons. J. Vis. Exp. (95), e51879, doi:10.3791/51879 (2015).More

Koh, J. Y., Iwabuchi, S., Huang, Z., Harata, N. C. Rapid Genotyping of Animals Followed by Establishing Primary Cultures of Brain Neurons. J. Vis. Exp. (95), e51879, doi:10.3791/51879 (2015).

Copy Citation Download Citation Reprints and Permissions
View Video

Get cutting-edge science videos from JoVE sent straight to your inbox every month.

Waiting X
Simple Hit Counter