Articles by Abigail Hielscher in JoVE
Isolation of Intact, Whole Mouse Mammary Glands for Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Expression and Gland Morphology Christopher Thompson1, Katherine Keck2, Abigail Hielscher2 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, GA-PCOM Here, we present a protocol for the isolation of whole, intact mouse mammary glands to investigate extracellular matrix (ECM) expression and ductal morphology. Mouse #4 abdominal glands were extracted from 8-10 week old female nulliparous mice, fixed in neutral buffered formalin, sectioned and stained using immunohistochemistry for ECM proteins.
Other articles by Abigail Hielscher on PubMed
Hypoxia and Free Radicals: Role in Tumor Progression and the Use of Engineering-based Platforms to Address These Relationships Free Radical Biology & Medicine. | Pubmed ID: 25257256 Hypoxia is a feature of all solid tumors, contributing to tumor progression and therapy resistance. Through stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), hypoxia activates the transcription of a number of genes that sustain tumor progression. Since the seminal discovery of HIF-1α as a hypoxia-responsive master regulator of numerous genes and transcription factors, several groups have reported a novel mechanism whereby hypoxia mediates stabilization of HIF-1α. This process occurs as a result of hypoxia-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, in turn, stabilize the expression of HIF-1α. As a result, a number of genes regulating tumor growth are expressed, fueling ongoing tumor progression. In this review, we outline a role for hypoxia in generating ROS and additionally define the mechanisms contributing to ROS-induced stabilization of HIF-1α.We further explore how ROS-induced HIF-1α stabilization contributes to tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapy response. We discuss a future outlook, describing novel therapeutic approaches for attenuating ROS production while considering how these strategies should be carefully selected when combining with chemotherapeutic agents. As engineering-based approaches have been more frequently utilized to address biological questions, we discuss opportunities whereby engineering techniques may be employed to better understand the physical and biochemical factors controlling ROS expression. It is anticipated that an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the hypoxia/ROS/HIF-1α axis in tumor progression will yield the development of better targeted therapies.
The Mechanisms of Genetically Modified Vaccinia Viruses for the Treatment of Cancer Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology. | Pubmed ID: 25900073 The use of oncolytic viruses for the treatment of cancer is an emerging field of cancer research and therapy. Oncolytic viruses are designed to induce tumor specific immunity while replicating selectively within cancer cells to cause lysis of the tumor cells. While there are several forms of oncolytic viruses, the use of vaccinia viruses for oncolysis may be more beneficial than other forms of oncolytic viruses. For example, vaccinia viruses have been shown to exert their anti-tumor effects through genetic engineering strategies which enhance their therapeutic efficacy. This paper will address some of the most common forms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses and will explore the mechanisms whereby they selectively target, enter and destroy cancer cells. Furthermore, this review will highlight how vaccinia viruses activate host immune responses against cancer cells and will address clinical trials evaluating the tumor-directed and killing efficacy of these viruses against solid tumors.