Articles by Anders R. Clausen in JoVE
Simultaneous Mapping and Quantitation of Ribonucleotides in Human Mitochondrial DNA Katrin Kreisel1, Martin K.M. Engqvist1,2, Anders R. Clausen1 1Department for Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, 2Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology Here we describe a method amenable to simultaneously quantitate and genome-wide map ribonucleotides in highly intact DNA at single-nucleotide resolution, combining enzymatic cleavage of genomic DNA with its alkaline hydrolysis and subsequent 5´-end sequencing.
Other articles by Anders R. Clausen on PubMed
Nucleotide Pools Dictate the Identity and Frequency of Ribonucleotide Incorporation in Mitochondrial DNA PLoS Genetics. | Pubmed ID: 28207748 Previous work has demonstrated the presence of ribonucleotides in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in the present study we use a genome-wide approach to precisely map the location of these. We find that ribonucleotides are distributed evenly between the heavy- and light-strand of mtDNA. The relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides reflect that DNA polymerase γ discriminates the four ribonucleotides differentially during DNA synthesis. The observed pattern is also dependent on the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools and disease-causing mutations that change these pools alter both the absolute and relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides. Our analyses strongly suggest that DNA polymerase γ-dependent incorporation is the main source of ribonucleotides in mtDNA and argues against the existence of a mitochondrial ribonucleotide excision repair pathway in human cells. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrate that when dNTP pools are limiting, ribonucleotides serve as a source of building blocks to maintain DNA replication. Increased levels of embedded ribonucleotides in patient cells with disturbed nucleotide pools may contribute to a pathogenic mechanism that affects mtDNA stability and impair new rounds of mtDNA replication.
Mapping Ribonucleotides Incorporated into DNA by Hydrolytic End-Sequencing Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). | Pubmed ID: 29043634 Ribonucleotides embedded within DNA render the DNA sensitive to the formation of single-stranded breaks under alkali conditions. Here, we describe a next-generation sequencing method called hydrolytic end sequencing (HydEn-seq) to map ribonucleotides inserted into the genome of Saccharomyce cerevisiae strains deficient in ribonucleotide excision repair. We use this method to map several genomic features in wild-type and replicase variant yeast strains.
Ribonucleotides Incorporated by the Yeast Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase Are Not Repaired Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. | Pubmed ID: 29109257 Incorporation of ribonucleotides into DNA during genome replication is a significant source of genomic instability. The frequency of ribonucleotides in DNA is determined by deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate/ribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP/rNTP) ratios, by the ability of DNA polymerases to discriminate against ribonucleotides, and by the capacity of repair mechanisms to remove incorporated ribonucleotides. To simultaneously compare how the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes incorporate and remove ribonucleotides, we challenged these processes by changing the balance of cellular dNTPs. Using a collection of yeast strains with altered dNTP pools, we discovered an inverse relationship between the concentration of individual dNTPs and the amount of the corresponding ribonucleotides incorporated in mitochondrial DNA, while in nuclear DNA the ribonucleotide pattern was only altered in the absence of ribonucleotide excision repair. Our analysis uncovers major differences in ribonucleotide repair between the two genomes and provides concrete evidence that yeast mitochondria lack mechanisms for removal of ribonucleotides incorporated by the mtDNA polymerase. Furthermore, as cytosolic dNTP pool imbalances were transmitted equally well into the nucleus and the mitochondria, our results support a view of the cytosolic and mitochondrial dNTP pools in frequent exchange.