In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
- Cells, Tissues, Organs
- Muscle & Nerve
- Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
- American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics : Official Publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, Its Constituent Societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics
- Journal of Cell Science
- Archives of Oral Biology
Articles by Anthea M. Rowlerson in JoVE
Isolation and Quantitative Immunocytochemical Characterization of Primary Myogenic Cells and Fibroblasts from Human Skeletal Muscle Chibeza C. Agley1,2, Anthea M. Rowlerson1, Cristiana P. Velloso1, Norman L. Lazarus1, Stephen D. R. Harridge1 1Centre of Human and Aerospace Physiological Sciences, King's College London, 2Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council, Cambridge Stem Cell Institute The main adherent cell types derived from human muscle are myogenic cells and fibroblasts. Here, cell populations are enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting based on the CD56 antigen. Subsequent immunolabelling with specific antibodies and use of image analysis techniques allows quantification of cytoplasmic and nuclear characteristics in individual cells.
Other articles by Anthea M. Rowlerson on PubMed
Specialized Cranial Muscles: How Different Are They from Limb and Abdominal Muscles? Cells, Tissues, Organs. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12784043 Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers can be classified into functional types by the heavy chain (MyHC) and light chain (MyLC) isoforms of myosin (the primary motor protein) that they contain. Most human skeletal muscle contains fiber types and myosin isoforms I, IIA and IIX. Some highly specialized muscle fibers in human extraocular and jaw-closing muscles express either novel myosins or unusual combinations of isoforms of unknown functional significance. Extrinsic laryngeal muscles may express the extraocular MyHC isoform for rapid contraction and a tonic MyHC isoform for slow tonic contractions. In jaw-closing muscles, fiber phenotypes and myosin expression have been characterized as highly unusual. The jaw-closing muscles of most carnivores and primates have tissue-specific expression of the type IIM or 'type II masticatory' MyHC. Human jaw-closing muscles, however, do not contain IIM myosin. Rather, they express myosins typical of developing or cardiac muscle in addition to type I, IIA and IIX myosins, and many of their fibers are hybrids, expressing two or more isoforms. Fiber morphology is also unusual in that the type II fibers are mostly of smaller diameter than type I. By combining physiological and biochemical techniques it is possible to determine the maximum velocity of unloaded shortening (V(o)) of an individual skeletal muscle fiber and subsequently determine the type and amount of myosin isoform. When analyzed, some laryngeal fibers shorten at much faster rates than type II fibers from limb and abdominal muscle. Yet some type I fibers in masseter show an opposite trend towards speeds 10-fold slower than type I fibers of limb muscle. These unusual shortening velocities are most probably regulated by MyHC isoforms in laryngeal fibers and by MyLC isoforms in masseter. For the jaw-closing muscles, this finding represents the first case in human muscle of physiological regulation of kinetics by light chains. Together, these results demonstrate that, compared to other skeletal muscles, cranial muscles have a wider repertoire of contractile protein expression and function. Molecular techniques for reverse transcription of mRNA and amplification by polymerase chain reaction have been applied to typing of single fibers isolated from limb muscles, successfully identifying pure type I, IIA and IIX and hybrid type I/IIA and IIA/IIX fibers. This demonstrates the potential for future studies of the regulation of gene expression in jaw-closing and laryngeal muscles, which have such a variety of complex fiber types fitting them for their roles in vivo.
Effects of Endurance and Strength-directed Electrical Stimulation Training on the Performance and Histological Properties of Paralyzed Human Muscle: a Pilot Study Muscle & Nerve. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20976779 Electrical stimulation (ES) improves muscle properties after spinal cord injury (SCI), but cycling power output (PO) remains low. We investigated the effect of endurance and strength ES training on these parameters. Assessments of quadriceps strength and fatigue resistance, cycling PO, and muscle biopsies were made in four well-trained SCI subjects (three cyclists and one rower) before and after additional weight training in the cyclists and once in the rower. Weight training improved muscle strength, but cycling PO was low in all subjects. There was no effect of training type on biopsy data. Biopsies showed non-specific signs of pathology, predominance of type IIa fibers, and uniform metabolic activity. Oxidative activity was low, as were capillary:fiber ratios in the cyclists. Cycling PO is limited by factors other than muscle strength. Future ES training studies should attempt to improve muscle oxidative capacity to optimize the potential benefits of ES exercise.
Human Masseter Muscle Fiber Type Properties, Skeletal Malocclusions, and Muscle Growth Factor Expression Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21821327 We identified masseter muscle fiber type property differences in subjects with dentofacial deformities.
Epigenetic Influence of KAT6B and HDAC4 in the Development of Skeletal Malocclusion American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics : Official Publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, Its Constituent Societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. Oct, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24075665 Genetic influences on the development of malocclusion include heritable effects on both masticatory muscles and jaw skeletal morphology. Beyond genetic variations, however, the characteristics of muscle and bone are also influenced by epigenetic mechanisms that produce differences in gene expression. We studied 2 enzymes known to change gene expressions through histone modifications, chromatin-modifying histone acetyltransferase KAT6B and deacetylase HDAC4, to determine their associations with musculoskeletal variations in jaw deformation malocclusions.
Human Skeletal Muscle Fibroblasts, but Not Myogenic Cells, Readily Undergo Adipogenic Differentiation Journal of Cell Science. Dec, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24101731 We characterised the adherent cell types isolated from human skeletal muscle by enzymatic digestion, and demonstrated that even at 72 hours after isolation these cultures consisted predominantly of myogenic cells (CD56(+), desmin(+)) and fibroblasts (TE-7(+), collagen VI(+), PDGFRα(+), vimentin(+), fibronectin(+)). To evaluate the behaviour of the cell types obtained, we optimised a double immuno-magnetic cell-sorting method for the separation of myogenic cells from fibroblasts. This procedure gave purities of >96% for myogenic (CD56(+), desmin(+)) cells. The CD56(-) fraction obtained from the first sort was highly enriched in TE-7(+) fibroblasts. Using quantitative analysis of immunofluorescent staining for lipid content, lineage markers and transcription factors, we tested if the purified cell populations could differentiate into adipocytes in response to treatment with either fatty acids or adipocyte-inducing medium. Both treatments caused the fibroblasts to differentiate into adipocytes, as shown by loss of intracellular TE-7, upregulation of the adipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα, and adoption of a lipid-laden adipocyte morphology. By contrast, myogenic cells did not undergo adipogenesis and showed differential regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα in response to these adipogenic treatments. Our results show that human skeletal muscle fibroblasts are at least bipotent progenitors that can remain as extracellular-matrix-producing cells or differentiate into adipocytes.
Molecular Motor MYO1C, Acetyltransferase KAT6B and Osteogenetic Transcription Factor RUNX2 Expression in Human Masseter Muscle Contributes to Development of Malocclusion Archives of Oral Biology. Jun, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24698832 Type I myosins are molecular motors necessary for glucose transport in the cytoplasm and initiation of transcription in the nucleus. Two of these, MYO1H and MYO1C, are paralogs which may be important in the development of malocclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate their gene expression in the masseter muscle of malocclusion subjects. Two functionally related proteins known to contribute to malocclusion were also investigated: KAT6B (a chromatin remodelling epigenetic enzyme which is activated by MYO1C) and RUNX2 (a transcription factor regulating osteogenesis which is activated by KAT6B).