Articles by Antonio Layoun in JoVE
Isolation of Murine Peritoneal Macrophages to Carry Out Gene Expression Analysis Upon Toll-like Receptors Stimulation Antonio Layoun1, Macha Samba1, Manuela M. Santos1,2 1Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Institut du cancer de Montréal, 2Département de Médecine, Université de Montréal We describe here a simple protocol to isolate murine peritoneal macrophages. This procedure is followed by RNA extraction to carry out gene expression analysis upon Toll-like receptors stimulation.
Other articles by Antonio Layoun on PubMed
Contribution of STAT3 and SMAD4 Pathways to the Regulation of Hepcidin by Opposing Stimuli Blood. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19204324 Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is a small antimicrobial peptide produced by the liver that regulates intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling by macrophages. Hepcidin is stimulated when iron stores increase and during inflammation and, conversely, is inhibited by hypoxia and augmented erythropoiesis. In many pathologic situations, such as in the anemia of chronic disease (ACD) and iron-loading anemias, several of these factors may be present concomitantly and may generate opposing signaling to regulate hepcidin expression. Here, we address the question of dominance among the regulators of hepcidin expression. We show that erythropoiesis drive, stimulated by erythropoietin but not hypoxia, down-regulates hepcidin in a dose-dependent manner, even in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or dietary iron-loading, which may act additively. These effects are mediated through down-regulation of phosphorylation of Stat3 triggered by LPS and of Smad1/5/8 induced by iron. In conclusion, hepcidin expression levels in the presence of opposing signaling are determined by the strength of the individual stimuli rather than by an absolute hierarchy among signaling pathways. Our findings also suggest that erythropoietic drive can inhibit both inflammatory and iron-sensing pathways, at least in part, via the suppression of STAT3 and SMAD4 signaling in vivo.
Toll-like Receptor Signal Adaptor Protein MyD88 is Required for Sustained Endotoxin-induced Acute Hypoferremic Response in Mice The American Journal of Pathology. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22497726 Hypoferremia, associated with immune system activation, involves a marked reduction in the levels of circulating iron, coupled with iron sequestration within macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays an important role in the development of the hypoferremic response, but how downstream signaling events affect genes involved in iron metabolism is incompletely understood. We investigated the involvement of MyD88-dependent (MyD88) and MyD88-independent (TRIF) TLR signaling in the development of hypoferremia. Using MyD88-deficient and TRIF-deficient mice, we show that MyD88 and TRIF signaling pathways are critical for up-regulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the iron regulator hepcidin. In addition, MyD88 signaling is required for the induction of lipocalin 2 secretion and iron sequestration in the spleen. Activation of TLR4 and TLR3 signaling through LPS and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] treatments resulted in rapid down-regulation of HFE protein [encoded by the hemochromatosis gene (Hfe)] and ferroportin [encoded by solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (Slc40a1)] expression in the spleen, independent of MyD88 or TRIF signaling and proinflammatory cytokine production. However, lack of MyD88 signaling significantly impaired the hypoferremic response triggered by LPS, indicating that ferroportin and HFE protein down-regulation alone are insufficient to maintain hypoferremia. The extent of the hypoferremic response was found to be limited by initial, basal iron levels. Together, these results suggest that targeting specific TLR signaling pathways by affecting the function of adaptor molecules may provide new strategies to counteract iron sequestration within macrophages during inflammation.
Bacterial Cell Wall Constituents Induce Hepcidin Expression in Macrophages Through MyD88 Signaling Inflammation. Aug, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22544439 Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron recycling by macrophages that is synthesized mainly by hepatocytes but also by macrophages. However, very little is known about the molecular regulation of hepcidin in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated hepcidin regulation in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and in murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We found that TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands activated hepcidin expression in RAW264.7 cells and in wild-type murine peritoneal macrophages, but not in murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from TLR2(-/-), TLR-4-deficient or MyD88(-/-) mice. IL-6 production by RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4 ligand) was enhanced by high amounts of iron present in the culture medium. We conclude that hepcidin expression in macrophages is regulated mainly through TLR2 and TLR4 receptors via the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and that autocrine regulation of iron accumulation in macrophages by hepcidin may affect the levels of proinflammatory cytokine production.