Other Publications (11)
- Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
- Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
- American Journal of Translational Research
- Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
- Acta Biomaterialia
- Drug Delivery and Translational Research
- Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- PloS One
- Materials (Basel, Switzerland)
- Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Articles by Carlos E. Semino in JoVE
Culturing Mammalian Cells in Three-dimensional Peptide Scaffolds Nausika Betriu1, Lourdes Recha-Sancho1, Carlos E. Semino1,2 1Tissue Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, IQS-School of Engineering, Ramon Llull University, 2Hebe Biolab Here, we present a protocol to obtain 3D-culture systems in self-assembling peptide scaffolds to promote the differentiation of dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes into cartilage-like tissue.
Other articles by Carlos E. Semino on PubMed
Morphogenetic and Regulatory Mechanisms During Developmental Chondrogenesis: New Paradigms for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews. | Pubmed ID: 19063663 Cartilage is the first skeletal tissue to be formed during embryogenesis leading to the creation of all mature cartilages and bones, with the exception of the flat bones in the skull. Therefore, errors occurring during the process of chondrogenesis, the formation of cartilage, often lead to severe skeletal malformations such as dysplasias. There are hundreds of skeletal dysplasias, and the molecular genetic etiology of some remains more elusive than of others. Many efforts have aimed at understanding the morphogenetic event of chondrogenesis in normal individuals, of which the main morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms will be reviewed here. For instance, many signaling molecules that guide chondrogenesis--for example, transforming growth factor-beta, bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factors, and Wnts, as well as transcriptional regulators such as the Sox family--have already been identified. Moreover, extracellular matrix components also play an important role in this developmental event, as evidenced by the promotion of the chondrogenic potential of chondroprogenitor cells caused by collagen II and proteoglycans like versican. The growing evidence of the elements that control chondrogenesis and the increasing number of different sources of progenitor cells will, hopefully, help to create tissue engineering platforms that could overcome many developmental or degenerative diseases associated with cartilage defects.
Engineered 3D Bioimplants Using Elastomeric Scaffold, Self-assembling Peptide Hydrogel, and Adipose Tissue-derived Progenitor Cells for Cardiac Regeneration American Journal of Translational Research. | Pubmed ID: 24936221 Contractile restoration of myocardial scars remains a challenge with important clinical implications. Here, a combination of porous elastomeric membrane, peptide hydrogel, and subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (subATDPCs) was designed and evaluated as a bioimplant for cardiac regeneration in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. SubATDPCs were doubly transduced with lentiviral vectors to express bioluminescent-fluorescent reporters driven by constitutively active, cardiac tissue-specific promoters. Cells were seeded into an engineered bioimplant consisting of a scaffold (polycaprolactone methacryloyloxyethyl ester) filled with a peptide hydrogel (PuraMatrix™), and transplanted to cover injured myocardium. Bioluminescence and fluorescence quantifications showed de novo and progressive increases in promoter expression in bioactive implant-treated animals. The bioactive implant was well adapted to the heart, and fully functional vessels traversed the myocardium-bioactive implant interface. Treatment translated into a detectable positive effect on cardiac function, as revealed by echocardiography. Thus, this novel implant is a promising construct for supporting myocardial regeneration.
Bioengineering 3D Environments for Cancer Models Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. | Pubmed ID: 24996134 Tumor development is a dynamic process where cancer cells differentiate, proliferate and migrate interacting among each other and with the surrounding matrix in a three-dimensional (3D) context. Interestingly, the process follows patterns similar to those involved in early tissue formation by accessing specific genetic programs to grow and disseminate. Thus, the complex biological mechanisms driving tumor progression cannot easily be recreated in the laboratory. Yet, essential tumor stages, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor-induced angiogenesis and metastasis, urgently need more realistic models in order to unravel the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern them. The latest implementation of successful 3D models is having a positive impact on the fight against cancer by obtaining more predictive systems for pre-clinical research, therapeutic drug screening, and early cancer diagnosis. In this review we explore the latest advances and challenges in tumor tissue engineering, by accessing knowledge and tools from cancer biology, material science and bioengineering.
Bimolecular Based Heparin and Self-assembling Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Applications Acta Biomaterialia. | Pubmed ID: 25595471 One major goal of tissue engineering is to develop new biomaterials that are similar structurally and functionally to the extracellular matrix (ECM) to mimic natural cell environments. Recently, different types of biomaterials have been developed for tissue engineering applications. Among them, self-assembling peptides are attractive candidates to create artificial cellular niches, because their nanoscale network and biomechanical properties are similar to those of the natural ECM. Here, we describe the development of a new biomaterial for tissue engineering composed by a simple combination of the self-assembling peptide RAD16-I and heparin sodium salt. As a consequence of the presence of heparin moieties the material acquired enhances the capacity of specific binding and release of growth factors (GFs) with heparin binding affinity such as VEGF165. Promising results were obtained in the vascular tissue engineering area, where the new composite material supported the development of tubular-like structures within a three dimensional (3D) culture model. Moreover, the new scaffold enhances the cell survival and chondrogenic commitment of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). Interestingly, the expression of specific markers of mature cartilage tissue including collagen type II was confirmed by western blot and real-time PCR. Furthermore, positive staining for proteoglycans (PGs) indicated the synthesis of cartilage tissue ECM components. Finally, the constructs did not mineralize and exhibited mechanical properties of a tissue undergoing chondrogenesis. Altogether, these results suggest that the new composite is a promising "easy to prepare" material for different reparative and regenerative applications.
Self-assembling Peptide Scaffolds As Innovative Platforms for Drug and Cell Delivery Systems in Cardiac Regeneration Drug Delivery and Translational Research. | Pubmed ID: 25788281 Today, the use of biomaterials in many biomedical platforms is becoming increasingly popular due to their high diversity, infinite mimicking capacity, and emerging functions. Applications currently cover diverse areas in biomedicine including systems for cell isolation, expansion and maintenance, platforms for drug and cell delivery, scaffolds for tissue engineering, tissue regeneration and repair, cancer therapy, etc. Biomaterials in general can be: (1) natural in origin such as many proteins from the extracellular matrix, natural polysaccharides or scaffolds presented in a blood clot or (2) synthetic, including polymers, ceramics, or peptides. In this review, we focus on the use of self-assembling peptide scaffolds as an innovative and reliable strategy to obtain platforms for cell and drug delivery to injured or diseased tissues and organs. This type of material is molecular by design and it develops spontaneously into nanofiber scaffolds with multiple uses. In particular, examples are given for applications in the area of cardiac repair and regeneration.
Three-Dimensional Cultures of Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue-Derived Progenitor Cells Based on RAD16-I Self-Assembling Peptide Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. | Pubmed ID: 26741987 The prolonged ischemia after myocardial infarction leads to a high degree of cardiomyocyte death, which leads to a reduction of normal heart function. Valuable lessons can be learnt from human myocardium and stem cell biology that would help scientists to develop new, effective, safe, and affordable regenerative therapies. In vivo models are of high interest, but their high complexity limits the possibility to analyze specific factors. In vitro models permit analyzing specific factors of tissue physiology or pathophysiology providing accurate approaches that may guide the creation of three-dimensional (3D) engineered cell aggregates. These systems provide a simplistic way to examine individual factors as compared to animal models, and better mimic the reality than 2D models. In this sense, the objective of this work is to better understand the behavior of a human mesenchymal stem cell-like cell line (subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells [subATDPCs], susceptible to be used in cell therapies) when they are embedded in the 3D environment provided by RAD16-I self-assembling peptide (SAP). Specifically, we study the effect in subATDPCs viability, morphology, proliferation, and protein and gene expression of matrix composition (i.e., RGD motif and heparin polysaccharide modifications) in RAD16-I matrix under different media conditions. Results demonstrated that the 3D environment provided by RAD16-I SAP is able to maintain subATDPCs in this new milieu and at the same time its cardiac commitment. Additionally, it has been observed that chemical induction can induce upregulation of cardiac markers, such as TBX5, MEF2C, ACTN1, and GJA1. Therefore, we propose this 3D model as a promising platform to analyze the effect of specific cues that can help improve cell performance for future cell therapy.
Heparin-based Self-assembling Peptide Scaffold Reestablish Chondrogenic Phenotype of Expanded De-differentiated Human Chondrocytes Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. | Pubmed ID: 26939919 The use of chondrocytes in cell-based therapies for cartilage lesions are limited by quantity and, therefore, require an in vitro expansion. As monolayer culture leads to de-differentiation, different culture techniques are currently under development to recover chondrocyte phenotype after cell expansion. In the present work, we studied the capacity of the bimolecular heparin-based self-assembling peptide scaffold (RAD16-I) as a three-dimensional (3D) culture system to foster reestablishment of chondrogenic phenotype of de-differentiated human Articular Chondrocytes (AC). The culture was performed in a serum-free medium under control and chondrogenic induction and good viability results were observed after 4 weeks of culture in both conditions. Cells changed their morphology to a more elongated shape and established a cellular network that induced the condensation of the constructs in the case of chondrogenic medium, leading to a compacted structure with improved mechanical properties. Specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of mature cartilage, such as collagen type II and aggrecan were up-regulated under chondrogenic medium and significantly enhanced with the presence of heparin in the scaffold. 3D constructs became highly stained with toluidine blue dye after 4 weeks of culture, indicating the presence of synthetized proteoglycans (PGs) by the cells. Interestingly, the full viscoelastic behavior was closely related to that found in chicken native cartilage. Altogether, the results suggest that the 3D culture model described can help de-differentiated human chondrocytes to recover its cartilage phenotype. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1694-1706, 2016.
Chondroitin Sulfate- and Decorin-Based Self-Assembling Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering PloS One. | Pubmed ID: 27315119 Cartilage injury and degenerative tissue progression remain poorly understood by the medical community. Therefore, various tissue engineering strategies aim to recover areas of damaged cartilage by using non-traditional approaches. To this end, the use of biomimetic scaffolds for recreating the complex in vivo cartilage microenvironment has become of increasing interest in the field. In the present study, we report the development of two novel biomaterials for cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) with bioactive motifs, aiming to emulate the native cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). We employed a simple mixture of the self-assembling peptide RAD16-I with either Chondroitin Sulfate (CS) or Decorin molecules, taking advantage of the versatility of RAD16-I. After evaluating the structural stability of the bi-component scaffolds at a physiological pH, we characterized these materials using two different in vitro assessments: re-differentiation of human articular chondrocytes (AC) and induction of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) to a chondrogenic commitment. Interestingly, differences in cellular morphology and viability were observed between cell types and culture conditions (control and chondrogenic). In addition, both cell types underwent a chondrogenic commitment under inductive media conditions, and this did not occur under control conditions. Remarkably, the synthesis of important ECM constituents of mature cartilage, such as type II collagen and proteoglycans, was confirmed by gene and protein expression analyses and toluidine blue staining. Furthermore, the viscoelastic behavior of ADSC constructs after 4 weeks of culture was more similar to that of native articular cartilage than to that of AC constructs. Altogether, this comparative study between two cell types demonstrates the versatility of our novel biomaterials and suggests a potential 3D culture system suitable for promoting chondrogenic differentiation.
Dedifferentiated Human Articular Chondrocytes Redifferentiate to a Cartilage-Like Tissue Phenotype in a Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Self-Assembling Peptide Composite Scaffold Materials (Basel, Switzerland). | Pubmed ID: 28773609 Adult articular cartilage has a limited capacity for growth and regeneration and, with injury, new cellular or biomaterial-based therapeutic platforms are required to promote repair. Tissue engineering aims to produce cartilage-like tissues that recreate the complex mechanical and biological properties found . In this study, a unique composite scaffold was developed by infiltrating a three-dimensional (3D) woven microfiber poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold with the RAD16-I self-assembling nanofibers to obtain multi-scale functional and biomimetic tissue-engineered constructs. The scaffold was seeded with expanded dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes and cultured for four weeks in control and chondrogenic growth conditions. The composite constructs were compared to control constructs obtained by culturing cells with 3D woven PCL scaffolds or RAD16-I independently. High viability and homogeneous cell distribution were observed in all three scaffolds used during the term of the culture. Moreover, gene and protein expression profiles revealed that chondrogenic markers were favored in the presence of RAD16-I peptide (PCL/RAD composite or alone) under chondrogenic induction conditions. Further, constructs displayed positive staining for toluidine blue, indicating the presence of synthesized proteoglycans. Finally, mechanical testing showed that constructs containing the PCL scaffold maintained the initial shape and viscoelastic behavior throughout the culture period, while constructs with RAD16-I scaffold alone contracted during culture time into a stiffer and compacted structure. Altogether, these results suggest that this new composite scaffold provides important mechanical requirements for a cartilage replacement, while providing a biomimetic microenvironment to re-establish the chondrogenic phenotype of human expanded articular chondrocytes.
Cardiac Differentiation Potential of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a 3D Self-assembling Peptide Scaffold Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity. Nov-Dec, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26707885 In the past decade, various strategies for cardiac reparative medicine involving stem cells from multiple sources have been investigated. However, the intra-cardiac implantation of cells with contractile ability may seriously disrupt the cardiac syncytium and de-synchronize cardiac rhythm. For this reason, bioactive cardiac implants, consisting of stem cells embedded in biomaterials that act like band aids, have been exploited to repair the cardiac wall after myocardial infarction. For such bioactive implants to function properly after transplantation, the choice of biomaterial is equally important as the selection of the stem cell source. While adult stem cells have shown promising results, they have various disadvantages including low proliferative potential in vitro, which make their successful usage in human transplants difficult. As a first step towards the development of a bioactive cardiac patch, we investigate here the cardiac differentiation properties of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) when cultured with and without ascorbic acid (AA) and when embedded in RAD16-I, a biomaterial commonly used to develop cardiac implants. In adherent cultures and in the absence of RAD16-I, AA promotes the cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs by enhancing the expression of specific cardiac genes and proteins and by increasing the number of contracting clusters. In turn, embedding in peptide hydrogel based on RAD16-I interferes with the normal cardiac differentiation progression. Embedded hiPSCs up-regulate genes associated with early cardiogenesis by up to 105 times independently of the presence of AA. However, neither connexin 43 nor troponin I proteins, which are related with mature cardiomyocytes, were detected and no contraction was noted in the constructs. Future experiments will need to focus on characterizing the mature cardiac phenotype of these cells when implanted into infarcted myocardia and assess their regenerative potential in vivo.