In JoVE (1)
Articles by Heidi E. Kloefkorn in JoVE
An In Vitro Adult Mouse Muscle-nerve Preparation for Studying the Firing Properties of Muscle Afferents Joy A. Franco1, Heidi E. Kloefkorn2, Shawn Hochman3, Katherine A. Wilkinson4 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, San José State University, 2J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 3Department of Physiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 4Department of Biological Sciences, San José State University Muscle sensory neurons are involved in proprioceptor signaling and also report on metabolic state and injury related events. We describe an adult mouse in vitro muscle-nerve preparation for studies on stretch-activated muscle afferents.
Other articles by Heidi E. Kloefkorn on PubMed
Characterization of Muscle Spindle Afferents in the Adult Mouse Using an in Vitro Muscle-nerve Preparation PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22745708 We utilized an in vitro adult mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) nerve-attached preparation to characterize the responses of muscle spindle afferents to ramp-and-hold stretch and sinusoidal vibratory stimuli. Responses were measured at both room (24°C) and muscle body temperature (34°C). Muscle spindle afferent static firing frequencies increased linearly in response to increasing stretch lengths to accurately encode the magnitude of muscle stretch (tested at 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% of resting length [Lo]). Peak firing frequency increased with ramp speeds (20% Lo/sec, 40% Lo/sec, and 60% Lo/sec). As a population, muscle spindle afferents could entrain 1:1 to sinusoidal vibrations throughout the frequency (10-100 Hz) and amplitude ranges tested (5-100 µm). Most units preferentially entrained to vibration frequencies close to their baseline steady-state firing frequencies. Cooling the muscle to 24°C decreased baseline firing frequency and units correspondingly entrained to slower frequency vibrations. The ramp component of stretch generated dynamic firing responses. These responses and related measures of dynamic sensitivity were not able to categorize units as primary (group Ia) or secondary (group II) even when tested with more extreme length changes (10% Lo). We conclude that the population of spindle afferents combines to encode stretch in a smoothly graded manner over the physiological range of lengths and speeds tested. Overall, spindle afferent response properties were comparable to those seen in other species, supporting subsequent use of the mouse genetic model system for studies on spindle function and dysfunction in an isolated muscle-nerve preparation.
Gait Analysis Methods for Rodent Models of Osteoarthritis Current Pain and Headache Reports. Oct, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25160712 Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models.