In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PloS One
- Annals of Plastic Surgery
- The Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery = Journal Canadien De Chirurgie Plastique
Articles by Jenny Nguyen in JoVE
Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer Melanie R. Rutkowski*1, Michael J. Allegrezza*1, Nikolaos Svoronos1, Amelia J. Tesone1, Tom L. Stephen1, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt1, Jenny Nguyen1, Paul J. Zhang2, Steven N. Fiering3, Julia Tchou4,5,6, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia1 1Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, Wistar Institute, 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Genetics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 4Division of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 5Rena Rowan Breast Center, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, 6Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Activation of latent mutations with adenovirus-Cre into the mammary ductal system results in a clinically relevant metastatic breast cancer. Incorporation of a YFP promoter allows tracking of distal metastatic tumor cells. This model is useful to study latent metastasis, anti-tumor immunity, and for designing novel immunotherapies to treat breast cancer.
Other articles by Jenny Nguyen on PubMed
Adenovirus-mediated Erythropoietin Production by Airway Epithelia is Enhanced by Apical Localization of the Coxsackie-adenovirus Receptor in Vivo Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15336650 In well-differentiated human airway epithelia, the coxsackie B and adenovirus types 2 and 5 receptor (CAR) resides on the basolateral membrane. Replacing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of CAR with a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-CAR) allows apical localization of GPI-CAR, where it can bind adenovirus and enhance gene transfer in vitro. To test this hypothesis further and to investigate requirements and barriers we developed an in vivo model that quantitatively assesses gene transfer of erythropoietin (EPO) to mouse airway epithelia. Our data suggest that erythropoietin is secreted basolaterally, allowing possible access to the bloodstream. The data also suggest that basolateral adenovirus-mediated airway epithelia EPO secretion persists for long periods and could be used to study persistence in vivo. Additionally, the increase in hematocrit in response to the increased serum EPO could be used for therapeutic purposes. Finally, we tested the ability of apically localized CAR to enhance the infection of AdEPO in mouse airway epithelia in vivo. The data suggest that apical receptors in airway epithelia may be sufficient to improve adenovirus infection of airway epithelia in vivo.
Bond Breaks of Nucleotides by Dissociative Electron Transfer of Nonequilibrium Prehydrated Electrons: a New Molecular Mechanism for Reductive DNA Damage Journal of the American Chemical Society. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19634911 DNA damage is a central mechanism in the pathogenesis and treatment of human diseases, notably cancer. Little is known about reductive DNA damage in causing genetic mutations during oncogenesis and killing cancer cells during radiotherapy. The prehydrated electron (e(-)(pre)) has the highest yield among all the radicals generated in cells during ionizing radiation and has subpicosecond lifetimes (10(-13) s) and energies below 0 eV, but its role in DNA damage is unknown. In this work, our real-time measurements by femtosecond time-resolved laser spectroscopy have revealed that while adenine and cytosine can effectively trap an e(-)(pre) to form stable anions, thymidine and especially guanine are highly susceptible to dissociative electron transfer of e(-)(pre), leading to bond dissociation in DNA. Our finding demonstrates a dissociative electron transfer pathway for reductive DNA damage that might be related to various diseases such as cancer and stroke. Moreover, this finding challenges the conventional notion that damage to the genome is mainly induced by the oxidizing OH* radical and might eventually lead to improved radiotherapy of cancer and radioprotection of humans.
Direct Observation of Ultrafast-electron-transfer Reactions Unravels High Effectiveness of Reductive DNA Damage Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21730183 Both water and electron-transfer reactions play important roles in chemistry, physics, biology, and the environment. Oxidative DNA damage is a well-known mechanism, whereas the relative role of reductive DNA damage is unknown. The prehydrated electron (e(pre)-), a novel species of electrons in water, is a fascinating species due to its fundamental importance in chemistry, biology, and the environment. e(pre)- is an ideal agent to observe reductive DNA damage. Here, we report both the first in situ femtosecond time-resolved laser spectroscopy measurements of ultrafast-electron-transfer (UET) reactions of e(pre)- with various scavengers (KNO(3), isopropanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide) and the first gel electrophoresis measurements of DNA strand breaks induced by e(pre)- and OH(•) radicals co-produced by two-UV-photon photolysis of water. We strikingly found that the yield of reductive DNA strand breaks induced by each e(pre)- is twice the yield of oxidative DNA strand breaks induced by each OH(•) radical. Our results not only unravel the long-standing mystery about the relative role of radicals in inducing DNA damage under ionizing radiation, but also challenge the conventional notion that oxidative damage is the main pathway for DNA damage. The results also show the potential of femtomedicine as a new transdisciplinary frontier and the broad significance of UET reactions of e(pre)- in many processes in chemistry, physics, biology, and the environment.
Electron Transfer-based Combination Therapy of Cisplatin with Tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine for Ovarian, Cervical, and Lung Cancers Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22685209 The platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for several types of cancer. However, cancer cells often become refractory with time and most patients with serious cancers die of drug resistance. Recently, we have discovered a unique dissociative electron-transfer mechanism of action of cisplatin, the first and most widely used platinum-based anticancer drug. Here, we show that the combination of cisplatin with an exemplary biological electron donor, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), may overcome the resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin. Our steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements confirm the effective dissociative electron-transfer reaction between TMPD and cisplatin. More significantly, we found that the combination of 100 μM TMPD with cisplatin enhances double-strand breaks of plasmid DNA by a factor of approximately 3.5 and dramatically reduces the viability of cisplatin-sensitive human cervical (HeLa) cancer cells and highly cisplatin-resistant human ovarian (NIH:OVCAR-3) and lung (A549) cancer cells. Furthermore, this combination enhances apoptosis and DNA fragmentation by factors of 2-5 compared with cisplatin alone. These results demonstrate that this combination treatment not only results in a strong synergetic effect, but also makes resistant cancer cells sensitive to cisplatin. Because cisplatin is the cornerstone agent for the treatment of a variety of human cancers (including testicular, ovarian, cervical, bladder, head/neck, and lung cancers), our results show both the potential to improve platinum-based chemotherapy of various human cancers and the promise of femtomedicine as an emerging frontier in advancing cancer therapy.
The β-blocker Nebivolol Is a GRK/β-arrestin Biased Agonist PloS One. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23977191 Nebivolol, a third generation β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) antagonist (β-blocker), causes vasodilation by inducing nitric oxide (NO) production. The mechanism via which nebivolol induces NO production remains unknown, resulting in the genesis of much of the controversy regarding the pharmacological action of nebivolol. Carvedilol is another β-blocker that induces NO production. A prominent pharmacological mechanism of carvedilol is biased agonism that is independent of Gαs and involves G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/β-arrestin signaling with downstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Due to the pharmacological similarities between nebivolol and carvedilol, we hypothesized that nebivolol is also a GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist. We tested this hypothesis utilizing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that solely express β2-ARs, and HL-1 cardiac myocytes that express β1- and β2-ARs and no detectable β3-ARs. We confirmed previous reports that nebivolol does not significantly alter cAMP levels and thus is not a classical agonist. Moreover, in both cell types, nebivolol induced rapid internalization of β-ARs indicating that nebivolol is also not a classical β-blocker. Furthermore, nebivolol treatment resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of ERK that was indistinguishable from carvedilol and similar in duration, but not amplitude, to isoproterenol. Nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to propranolol (non-selective β-AR-blocker), AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor), indicating that the signaling emanates from β-ARs and involves the EGFR. Furthermore, in MEFs, nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of GRK2 as well as siRNA knockdown of β-arrestin 1/2. Additionally, nebivolol induced redistribution of β-arrestin 2 from a diffuse staining pattern into more intense punctate spots. We conclude that nebivolol is a β2-AR, and likely β1-AR, GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist, which suggests that some of the unique clinically beneficial effects of nebivolol may be due to biased agonism at β1- and/or β2-ARs.
Closed Traumatic Rupture of the Thenar Muscles From the Origin: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Annals of Plastic Surgery. Jul, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24322646 Closed traumatic rupture of the thenar muscles is an unusual and rare injury. Traumatic musculotendinous injuries in the hand and wrist occur primarily from penetrating trauma. Only 2 such cases were identified in medical literature. We report a case of closed traumatic rupture of the thenar muscles in an otherwise healthy 33-year-old female nurse who sustained a hyperabduction injury of her right thumb and wrist during a daily occupational routine, resulting in complete avulsion of the right abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis from their origins. After declining initial surgical management, the patient subsequently returned 6 months later reporting continued pain, paresthesias, and thenar deformation, and requested surgical intervention. On examination, she continued to exhibit weakness of thumb abduction and mild weakness with opposition. She was again offered an open carpal tunnel release with exploration of the thenar eminence and possible tendon transfer, although she adamantly refused any tendon transfer. An open right carpal tunnel release was performed with exploration and direct muscle repair through a lateral thenar incision. Primary muscular reattachment was accomplished by suturing the abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis to the flexor retinaculum and the trapezium. Functional results 15 months after surgery were satisfactory with improvements in abduction and opposition of the thumb and restoration of the thenar contour. The chosen surgical technique for repair resulted in good functional outcome, while avoiding the need for tendon transfer.
Muscle Hernias of the Leg: A Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature The Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery = Journal Canadien De Chirurgie Plastique. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24497767 A case involving a retired, elderly male war veteran with a symptomatic peroneus brevis muscle hernia causing superficial peroneal nerve compression with chosen surgical management is presented. Symptomatic muscle hernias of the extremities occur most commonly in the leg and are a rare cause of chronic leg pain. Historically, treating military surgeons pioneered the early documentation of leg hernias observed in active military recruits. A focal fascial defect can cause a muscle to herniate, forming a variable palpable subcutaneous mass, and causing pain and potentially neuropathic symptoms with nerve involvement. While the true incidence is not known, the etiology has been classified as secondary to a congenital (or constitutional) fascial weakness, or acquired fascial defect, usually secondary to direct or indirect trauma. The highest occurrence is believed to be in young, physically active males. Involvement of the tibialis anterior is most common, although other muscles have been reported. Dynamic ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging is often used to confirm diagnosis and guide treatment. Most symptomatic cases respond successfully to conservative treatment, with surgery reserved for refractory cases. A variety of surgical techniques have been described, ranging from fasciotomy to anatomical repair of the fascial defect, with no consensus on optimal treatment. Clinicians must remember to consider muscle hernias in their repertoire of differential diagnoses for chronic leg pain or neuropathy. A comprehensive review of muscle hernias of the leg is presented to highlight their history, occurrence, presentation, diagnosis and treatment.