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Articles by Junhwan Kim in JoVE

Other articles by Junhwan Kim on PubMed

Automatic Selection of Mask and Arterial Phase Images for Temporally Resolved MR Digital Subtraction Angiography

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine : Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Dec, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12465110

For time-resolved background-subtracted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography, the bright and sparse arterial signal allows unique identification of contrast bolus arrival in the arteries. This article presents an automatic filtering algorithm using such arterial characterization for selecting arterial phase images and mask images to generate an optimal summary arteriogram. A paired double-blinded comparison demonstrated that this automatic algorithm is as effective as the manual process.

Effects of Benzoannulation and Alpha-octabutoxy Substitution on the Photophysical Behavior of Nickel Phthalocyanines: a Combined Experimental and DFT/TDDFT Study

Inorganic Chemistry. Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17300192

The photophysical properties of a group of Ni(II)-centered tetrapyrroles have been investigated by ultrafast transient absorption spectrometry and DFT/TDDFT methods in order to characterize the impacts of alpha-octabutoxy substitution and benzoannulation on the deactivation pathways of the S1(pi,pi*) state. The compounds examined were NiPc, NiNc, NiPc(OBu)8, and NiNc(OBu)8, where Pc = phthalocyanine and Nc = naphthalocyanine. It was found that the S1(pi,pi*) state of NiNc(OBu)8 deactivated within the time resolution of the instrument (200 fs) to a vibrationally hot T1(pi,pi*) state. The quasidegeneracy of the S1(pi,pi*) and 3(dz2,dx2-y2) states allowed for fast intersystem crossing (ISC) to occur. After vibrational relaxation (ca. 2.5 ps), the T1(pi,pi*) converted rapidly (ca. 19 ps lifetime) and reversibly into the 3LMCT(pi,dx2-y2) state. The equilibrium state, so generated, decayed to the ground state with a lifetime of ca. 500 ps. Peripheral substitution of the Pc ring significantly modified the photodeactivation mechanism of the S1(pi,pi*) by inducing substantial changes in the relative energies of the S1(pi,pi*), 3(dpi,dx2-y2), 3(dz2,dx2-y2), T1(pi,pi*), and 1,3LMCT(pi,dx2-y2) excited states. The location of the Gouterman LUMOs and the unoccupied metal level (dx2-y2) with respect to the HOMO is crucial for the actual position of these states. In NiPc, the S1(pi,pi*) state underwent ultrafast (200 fs) ISC into a hot (d,d) state. Vibrational cooling (ca. 20 ps lifetime) resulted in a cold (dz2,dx2-y2) state, which repopulated the ground state with a 300 ps lifetime. In NiPc(OBu)8, the S1(pi,pi*) state deactivated through the 3(dz2,dx2-y2), which in turn converted to the 3LMCT(pi,dx2-y2) state, which finally repopulated the ground state with a lifetime of 640 ps. Insufficient solubility of NiNc in noncoordinating solvents prevented transient absorption data from being obtained for this compound. However, the TDDFT calculations were used to make speculations about the photoproperties.

Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome C by Singlet Oxygen

Free Radical Biology & Medicine. May, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18242196

Singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) is a reactive oxygen species that may be generated in biological systems. Photodynamic therapy generates (1)O(2) by photoexcitation of sensitizers resulting in intracellular oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis. (1)O(2) oxidizes amino acid side chains of proteins and inactivates enzymes when generated in vitro. Among proteogenic amino acids, His, Tyr, Met, Cys, and Trp are known to be oxidized by (1)O(2) at physiological pH. However, there is a lack of direct evidence of oxidation of proteins by (1)O(2). Because (1)O(2) is difficult to detect in cells, identifying oxidized cellular products uniquely derived from (1)O(2) could serve as a marker of its presence. In the present study, (1)O(2) reactions with model peptides analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry provide insight into the mass of prominent adducts formed with the reactive amino acids. Analysis by MALDI-TOF and tandem mass spectrometry of peptides of cytochrome c exposed to (1)O(2) generated by photoexcitation of the phthalocyanine Pc 4 showed unique oxidation products, which might be used as markers of the presence of (1)O(2) in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Differences in the elemental composition of the oxidized amino acid residues observed with cytochrome c and the model peptides suggest that the protein environment can affect the oxidation pathway.

Photophysical Behavior of Open-shell First-row Transition-metal Octabutoxynaphthalocyanines: CoNc(OBu)8 and CuNc(OBu)8 As Case Studies

Inorganic Chemistry. May, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18407627

Ultrafast photodynamics and density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) results for complexes of Co and Cu with 5,9,14,18,23,27,32,36-octabutoxynaphthalocyanine [CoNc(OBu)8 and CuNc(OBu)8] are reported. As a basis for this work, details concerning the syntheses of these complexes and the corresponding Zn complex (used as a reference) are given. Transient absorption spectrometry with femtosecond time resolution combined with a detailed DFT/TDDFT analysis has been employed to construct a complete picture of the excited-state dynamics after Q-band excitation of the Co and Cu complexes and to gain an understanding of the relationship between the nature of the metal center and the excited-state lifetime. The Co complex was shown to return to its ground state via two competing channels: a (2)T1(pi, pi*) state that decayed with a lifetime of 1 ps and a low-lying (2)(d, d) state that repopulated the ground-state surface with a lifetime of 15 ps. CuNc(OBu)8 showed ground-state repopulation from the (2)T1(pi, pi*) state via a lower-lying ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (LMCT) state that was completed within a few nanoseconds. The photophysical behavior of the cobalt and copper complexes was compared to that previously reported for the nickel analog in an effort to highlight the effect of the central metal on the nature and rates of the deactivation pathways. The results described in this work provide basic knowledge that is relevant to the use of these compounds as photothermal sensitizers in cancer therapy.

Photosensitization of Intact Heart Mitochondria by the Phthalocyanine Pc 4: Correlation of Structural and Functional Deficits with Cytochrome C Release

Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20510354

Singlet oxygen is produced by the absorption of red light by the phthalocyanine dye Pc 4, followed by energy transfer to dissolved triplet oxygen. Mitochondria preincubated with Pc 4 were illuminated by red light and the damage to mitochondrial structure and function by the generated singlet oxygen was studied. At early illumination times (3-5 min of red light exposure), State 3 respiration was inhibited (50%), whereas State 4 activity increased, resulting in effectively complete uncoupling. Individual complex activities were measured and only complex IV activity was significantly reduced and exhibited a dose response, whereas the activities of electron transport complexes I, II, and III were not significantly affected. Cytochrome c release was an increasing function of irradiation time, with 30% being released after 5 min of illumination. Mitochondrial expansion along with changes in the structure of the cristae were observed by transmission electron microscopy after 5 min of irradiation, with an increase in large vacuoles and membrane rupture occurring after more extensive exposures.

Photo-oxidation of Cardiolipin and Cytochrome C with Bilayer-embedded Pc 4

Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20510355

Singlet oxygen, (1)O(2), is produced by absorption of red light by the phthalocyanine dye Pc 4, followed by energy transfer to dissolved triplet molecular oxygen, (3)O(2). In tissues, Pc 4 concentrates in lipid bilayers, and particularly in mitochondrial membranes, because of its positive charge. Illumination of cells and tissues with red light after uptake of Pc 4 results in cell death. The potential initial chemical steps that result in cellular dysfunction have been characterized in this study. Both unsaturated acyl chains of phospholipids and proteins are identified as targets of oxidation. Tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin was oxidized in both liposomes and mitochondria after Pc 4-mediated (1)O(2) generation. Evidence for the formation of both mono- and bis-hydroperoxide adducts of single linoleoyl side chains is provided by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. Similarly, illumination of Pc 4 in liposomes and mitochondria resulted in cytochrome c oxidation as detected by oxidation of His 26 in the peptide H(26)*KTGPNLHGLFGK, further supporting the potential use of this peptide as a biomarker for the presence of mitochondrial oxidative stress characteristic of (1)O(2) in vivo (J. Kim et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 44:1700-1711; 2008). These observations provide evidence that formation of lipid hydroperoxides and/or protein oxidation can be the initial chemical steps in Pc 4-mediated induction of apoptosis in photodynamic therapy.

Binding to and Photo-oxidation of Cardiolipin by the Phthalocyanine Photosensitizer Pc 4

Journal of Biomedical Optics. Sep-Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 21054078

Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its peroxidation correlates with release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptosis. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier Förster resonance energy transfer studies showed colocalization of Pc 4 and cardiolipin, which suggests cardiolipin as a target of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Pc 4. Using liposomes as membrane models, we find that Pc 4 binds to cardiolipin-containing liposomes similarly to those that do not contain cardiolipin. Pc 4 binding is also studied in MCF-7c3 cells and those whose cardiolipin content was reduced by treatment with palmitate. Decreased levels of cardiolipin are quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The similar level of binding of Pc 4 to cells, irrespective of palmitate treatment, supports the lack of specificity of Pc 4 binding. Thus, factors other than cardiolipin are likely responsible for the preferential localization of Pc 4 in mitochondria. Nonetheless, cardiolipin within liposomes is readily oxidized by Pc 4 and light, yielding apparently mono- and dihydroperoxidized cardiolipin. If similar products result from exposure of cells to Pc 4-PDT, they could be part of the early events leading to apoptosis following Pc 4-PDT.

Cardiolipin: Characterization of Distinct Oxidized Molecular Species

Journal of Lipid Research. Jan, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20858593

Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid predominantly found in the mitochondrial inner membrane and is associated structurally with individual complexes of the electron transport chain (ETC). Because the ETC is the major mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating site, the proximity to the ETC and bisallylic methylenes of the PUFA chains of CL make it a likely target of ROS in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Oxidized cellular CL products, uniquely derived from ROS-induced autoxidation, could serve as biomarkers for the presence of the ROS and could help in the understanding of the mechanism of oxidative stress. Because major CL species have four unsaturated acyl chains, whereas other phospholipids usually have only one in the sn-2 position, characterization of oxidized CL is highly challenging. In the current study, we exposed CL, under aerobic conditions, to singlet oxygen (¹O₂), the radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride, or room air, and the oxidized CL species were characterized by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Our reverse-phase ion-pair HPLC-MS/MS method can characterize the major and minor oxidized CL species by detecting distinctive fragment ions associated with specific oxidized species. The HPLC-MS/MS results show that monohydroperoxides and bis monohydroperoxides were generated under all three conditions. However, significant amounts of CL dihydroperoxides were produced only by ¹O₂-mediated oxidation. These products were barely detectable from radical oxidation either in a liposome bilayer or in thin film. These observations are only possible due to the chromatographic separation of the different oxidized species.

Monolysocardiolipin: Improved Preparation with High Yield

Journal of Lipid Research. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20959418

A simple, high-yielding preparation of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) by phospholipase A2 hydrolysis of cardiolipin (CL) in methanol on a semi-preparative scale is described. In methanol, phospholipase A2 preferentially hydrolyzes CL to MLCL. This selectivity results in ∼80% yield of MLCL. The synthesized MLCL and dilysocardiolipin were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS/MS. Only the sn-2 position of CL was hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2 in methanol.

Near-infrared-emitting Phthalocyanines. A Combined Experimental and Density Functional Theory Study of the Structural, Optical, and Photophysical Properties of Pd(II) and Pt(II) α-butoxyphthalocyanines

Inorganic Chemistry. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21188985

The structural, optical, and photophysical properties of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxyphthalocyaninato-palladium(II), PdPc(OBu)(8), and the newly synthesized platinum analogue PtPc(OBu)(8) are investigated combining X-ray crystallography, static and transient absorption spectroscopy, and relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) Density Functional Theory (DFT)/Time Dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations where spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects are explicitly considered. The results are compared to those previously reported for NiPc(OBu)(8) (J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 2078) in an effort to highlight the effect of the central metal on the structural and photophysical properties of the group 10 transition metal octabutoxyphthalocyanines. Different from the nickel analogue, PdPc(OBu)(8) and PtPc(OBu)(8) show a modest and irregular saddling distortion of the macrocycle, but share with the first member of the group similar UV-vis spectra, with the deep red and intense Q-band absorption experiencing a blue shift down the group, as observed in virtually all tetrapyrrolic complexes of this triad. The blue shift of the Q-band along the MPc(OBu)(8) (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) series is interpreted on the basis of the metal-induced electronic structure changes. Besides the intense deep red absorption, the title complexes exhibit a distinct near-infrared (NIR) absorption due to a transition to the double-group 1E (π,π*) state, which is dominated by the lowest single-group (3)E (π,π*) state. Unlike NiPc(OBu)(8), which is nonluminescent, PdPc(OBu)(8) and PtPc(OBu)(8) show both deep red fluorescence emission and NIR phosphorescence emission. Transient absorption experiments and relativistic spin-orbit TDDFT calculations consistently indicate that fluorescence and phosphorescence emissions occur from the S(1)(π,π*) and T(1)(π,π*) states, respectively, the latter being directly populated from the former, and the triplet state decays directly to the S(0) surface (the triplet lifetime in deaerated benzene solution was 3.04 μs for Pd and 0.55 μs for Pt). Owing to their triplet properties, PdPc(OBu)(8) and PtPc(OBu)(8) have potential for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and are potential candidates for NIR light emitting diodes or NIR emitting probes.

Kinetics of IL-6 and TNF-α Changes in a Canine Model of Sepsis Induced by Endotoxin

Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Apr, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22424937

Sepsis is a major cause of death in veterinary medicine, although a better prognosis can result from an early diagnosis. To speed the diagnosis, the biomarkers TNF-α and IL-6 can provide valuable information regarding systemic inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in cytokine levels in an experimental model of sepsis using ELISA and real-time PCR. Ten adult Beagles were studied; seven received an IV bolus of high dose lipopolysaccharide solution (1mg/kg) to induce sepsis. The remaining three beagles were the control group. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after administering LPS. Serum IL-6 level peaked at 3h (1.89 ± 0.10 ng/ml) and serum TNF-α peaked at 1h (1.11 ± 0.01 ng/ml). The expression of IL-6 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increased 62-fold compared to the control group at 1h; TNF-α mRNA increased by 4.5-fold at 1h. The expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA in PBMCs changed more rapidly than serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. In addition, TNF-α mRNA levels in PBMCs remained elevated longer than serum TNF-α. Our study establishes the basis for future work aimed at a better understanding of the systemic inflammatory response to infection and sepsis in canine patients.

Improved Mitochondrial Function with Diet-induced Increase in Either Docosahexaenoic Acid or Arachidonic Acid in Membrane Phospholipids

PloS One. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22479624

Mitochondria can depolarize and trigger cell death through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). We recently showed that an increase in the long chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) and depletion of the n6 PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) in mitochondrial membranes is associated with a greater Ca(2+) load required to induce MPTP opening. Here we manipulated mitochondrial phospholipid composition by supplementing the diet with DHA, ARA or combined DHA+ARA in rats for 10 weeks. There were no effects on cardiac function, or respiration of isolated mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial phospholipids showed DHA supplementation increased DHA and displaced ARA in mitochondrial membranes, while supplementation with ARA or DHA+ARA increased ARA and depleted linoleic acid (18:2n6). Phospholipid analysis revealed a similar pattern, particularly in cardiolipin. Tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin was depleted by 80% with ARA or DHA+ARA supplementation, with linoleic acid side chains replaced by ARA. Both the DHA and ARA groups had delayed Ca(2+)-induced MPTP opening, but the DHA+ARA group was similar to the control diet. In conclusion, alterations in mitochondria membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition caused by dietary DHA or ARA was associated with a greater cumulative Ca(2+) load required to induced MPTP opening. Further, high levels of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin were not essential for normal mitochondrial function if replaced with very-long chain n3 or n6 PUFAs.

Comprehensive Approach to the Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Phospholipids by HPLC-MS

Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. Jan, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23266842

A normal-phase HPLC-MS method was established to analyze mitochondrial phospholipids quantitatively as well as qualitatively. An efficient extraction procedure and chromatographic conditions were developed using twelve standardized phospholipids and lysophospholipids. The chromatographic conditions provided physical separation of phospholipids by class, and efficient ionization allowed detection of low abundance phospholipids such as phosphatidylglycerol and monolysocardiolipin. The chromatographic separation of each class of phospholipid permitted qualitative identification of molecular species without interference from other classes. This is advantageous for mitochondrial lipidomics because the composition of mitochondrial phospholipids varies depending on tissue source, pathological condition, and nutrition. Using the method, seven classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, and monolysocardiolipin) were detected in rat heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria and all but phosphatidylserine were quantified. The concentration was calculated using standard curves with an internal standard generated for each class of phospholipid. The method was validated for intraday and interday variation and showed excellent reproducibility and accuracy. This new method, with each step documented, provides a powerful tool for accurate quantitation of phospholipids, a basic structural component of mitochondrial membranes.

Overexpression of Annexin A4 is Associated with Chemoresistance in Papillary Serous Adenocarcinoma of the Ovary

Human Pathology. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23290009

Annexin A4 study in ovarian cancer has been primarily focused on clear cell carcinoma, which exhibits strong resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and cellular localization of annexin A4 in serous ovarian carcinomas. We evaluated the expression of annexin A4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 40 ovarian serous carcinoma tissues. Furthermore, the distribution of the protein within the tumor was studied by immunohistochemistry in 70 epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues. The levels of annexin A4 transcripts were higher in 14 chemoresistant tumors than those in 26 chemosensitive tumors (P = .013). Immunohistochemical expressions showed that nuclear expression was detected in 14 (20.0%) of 70 samples, and cytoplasmic expression was detected in 17 (24.3%) of 70 samples. The results showed that 35.7% of women with nuclear expression were resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy, whereas only 14.3% of women without expression were chemoresistant (P = .065). In addition, patients with nuclear staining had significantly shorter disease-free survival than did patients who showed negative staining. Multivariate proportional hazards model revealed that the stage and nuclear annexin A4 expression were independent prognostic factors (hazard ratios, 6.34 [P = .001] and 2.85 [P = .011], respectively). This study showed that overexpression and nuclear localization of annexin A4 are related to chemoresistance and poor survival in patients with serous papillary ovarian carcinomas. Future studies are required to develop new therapies targeting annexin A4 in patients with ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma.

The Synthesis and Characterization of a Group of Transition Metal Octabutoxynaphthalocyanines and the Absorption and Emission Properties of the Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd and Pt Members of This Group

Polyhedron. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23745014

The synthesis and photophysical properties of new metallo-octabutoxynaphthalocyanines with Rh(III), Ir(III), and Pt(II) are reported. Various metals were inserted into the metal-free octabutoxynaphthalocyanine and the resultant metal complexes were fully characterized by NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The absorption and emission properties of these new complexes were also examined and compared to those of Co(II), Ni(II), and Pd(II) octabutoxynaphthalocyanines. The results provide useful information to understand the effect of these transition metals on the properties of this macrocyclic ring.

Serial Changes of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cell in Canine Model of Sepsis Induced by Endotoxin

The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24476849

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the immune system and maintain the homeostasis of the immune system in healthy dogs. In septic patients, the percentage of circulating Tregs is increasing, which may cause the sepsis-induced immunosuppression. This study was performed to investigate the changes of the percentage of Tregs in total lymphocytes of the peripheral blood in the experimental canine endotoxemia model. The animals injected with a high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced severe leukopenia followed by leukocytosis but the total lymphocytes number was relatively consistent. As a result of flow cytometric analysis, the percentage of Tregs in total lymphocytes of the peripheral blood was 8.45% ± 1.30% (day 0), and it temporarily decreased 2.54 ± 1.16% (day 1), and increased continuously until the end of the experiment (14.34 ± 4.10% on day 3 and 25.70 ± 7.39% on day 7), respectively. This study provides basic information in physiologic and immunologic changes in Tregs in dogs with sepsis model.

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