In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Wonsuk Lee in JoVE

Other articles by Wonsuk Lee on PubMed

Demonstration of the Coupling of Optofluidic Ring Resonator Lasers with Liquid Waveguides

Optics Letters. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20808395

Optofluidic lasers are of particular interest for lab-on-a-chip-type devices, with broad spectral tunability, convenient microfluidic integration, and a small footprint. Optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) lasers are advantageous in terms of size but typically generate nondirectional emission that is of minimal practical use. We introduce two unique geometries for soft-lithography-based OFRR lasers--side-coupled rings and spiral rings--both of which can be produced in polydimethyl siloxane substrates with contact molding. These rings utilize evanescent and direct butt-coupling, respectively, to effectively couple the OFRR laser emission into microfluidic channels. A laser threshold of a few to tens of microJ/mm(2) is achieved.

Versatile Optofluidic Ring Resonator Lasers Based on Microdroplets

Optics Express. Sep, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21996908

We develop a novel nL-sized microdroplet laser based on the capillary optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR). The microdroplet is generated in a microfluidic channel using two immiscible fluids and is subsequently delivered to the capillary OFRR downstream. Despite the presence of the high refractive index (RI) carrier fluid, the lasing emission can still be achieved for the droplet formed by low RI solution. The lasing threshold of 1.54 µJ/mm(2) is achieved, >6 times lower than the state-of-the-art, thanks to the high Q-factor of the OFRR. Furthermore, the lasing emission can be conveniently coupled into an optical fiber. Finally, tuning of the lasing wavelength is achieved via highly efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer processes by merging two different dye droplets in the microfluidic channel. Versatility combined with improved lasing characteristics makes our OFRR droplet laser an attractive platform for high performance optofluidic lasers and bio/chemical sensing with small sample volumes.

Rapid, Sensitive, and Multiplexed On-chip Optical Sensors for Micro-gas Chromatography

Lab on a Chip. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22245960

We developed and characterized a rapid, sensitive and integrated optical vapor sensor array for micro-gas chromatography (μGC) applications. The sensor is based on the Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer formed by a micrometre-thin vapor-sensitive polymer layer coated on a silicon wafer. The thickness and the refractive index of the polymer vary in response to the vapor analyte, resulting in a change in the reflected intensity of the laser impinged on the sensor. In our study, four different polymers were coated on four wells pre-etched on a silicon wafer to form a spatially separated sensor array. A CMOS imager was employed to simultaneously monitor the polymers' response, thus enabling multiplexed detection of a vapor analyte passing through the GC column. A sub-second detection time was demonstrated. In addition, a sub-picogram detection limit was achieved, representing orders of magnitude improvement over the on-chip vapor sensors previously reported.

Bio-switchable Optofluidic Lasers Based on DNA Holliday Junctions

Lab on a Chip. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22790530

Bio-switchable optofluidic lasers based on DNA Holliday junctions were demonstrated. Nearly 100% wavelength switching was achieved through reversible conformational change of the Holliday junction controlled by magnesium ionic strength.

Intracavity DNA Melting Analysis with Optofluidic Lasers

Analytical Chemistry. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23017119

DNA melting analysis holds great promise for simple and fast DNA sequence discrimination. However, conventional fluorescence-based methods suffer from a small differential signal and demanding melting curve analysis, both of which make it difficult to distinguish the target DNA from the mismatched one. Herein, we propose and demonstrate a highly specific intracavity DNA melting analysis scheme utilizing an optofluidic laser. The laser optically amplifies the small yet intrinsic thermal dynamic difference between the target and the single-base-mismatched DNA, resulting in a differential signal that is orders of magnitude greater than with fluorescence-based methods. In particular, the existence of a phase transition between the stimulated laser emission and fluorescence (i.e., spontaneous emission) enables accurate determination of the DNA transition temperature difference. Furthermore, the high differential signal in the intracavity detection allows for scanning of the laser excitation at a fixed temperature to distinguish two DNA sequences, which provides another means for rapid DNA analysis. In this paper, we first theoretically investigate DNA melting analysis using an optofluidic laser and then experimentally explore this scheme with a high-quality optofluidic ring resonator. Distinction of two DNA sequences of up to 100 bases long is demonstrated. The intracavity detection developed here will lead to novel optofluidic devices that enable rapid and simple analysis of DNAs with very long sequences.

Brillouin Cavity Optomechanics with Microfluidic Devices

Nature Communications. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23744103

Cavity optomechanics allows the parametric coupling of phonon- and photon-modes in microresonators and is presently investigated in a broad variety of solid-state systems. Optomechanics with superfluids has been proposed as a path towards ultra-low optical- and mechanical-dissipation. However, there have been no optomechanics experiments reported with non-solid phases of matter. Direct liquid immersion of optomechanics experiments is challenging, as the acoustic energy simply leaks out to the higher-impedance liquid surrounding the device. Here we confine liquids within hollow resonators to circumvent this issue and to enable optical excitation of mechanical whispering-gallery modes at frequencies ranging from 2 to 11,000 MHz. Our device enables optomechanical investigation with liquids, while light is conventionally coupled from the outer dry side of the capillary, and liquids are provided by means of a standard microfluidic inlet.

Self-assembled DNA Tetrahedral Optofluidic Lasers with Precise and Tunable Gain Control

Lab on a Chip. Sep, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23846506

We have applied self-assembled DNA tetrahedral nanostructures for the precise and tunable control of the gain in an optofluidic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) laser. By adjusting the ratio of the donor and the acceptor attached to the tetrahedral vertices, 3.8 times reduction in the lasing threshold and 28-fold enhancement in the lasing efficiency were demonstrated. This work takes advantage of the self-recognition and self-assembly capabilities of biomolecules with well-defined structures and addressability, enabling nano-engineering of the laser down to the molecular level.

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