Articles by Karen M. Berkowitz in JoVE
Preparation of Meiotic Chromosome Spreads from Mouse Spermatocytes Ferdusy Dia1, Tierra Strange1, Jenny Liang1, Jacob Hamilton1, Karen M. Berkowitz1,2 1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Drexel University College of Medicine Meiosis is the developmental process by which gametes are formed through a single round of DNA replication and two successive rounds of chromosome segregation. Mammalian meiosis can be examined by utilizing a technique to prepare meiotic chromosome spreads. Here, we demonstrate a method of preparing surface-spread nuclei from mouse spermatocytes.
Other articles by Karen M. Berkowitz on PubMed
Disruption of CHTF18 Causes Defective Meiotic Recombination in Male Mice PLoS Genetics. | Pubmed ID: 23133398 CHTF18 (chromosome transmission fidelity factor 18) is an evolutionarily conserved subunit of the Replication Factor C-like complex, CTF18-RLC. CHTF18 is necessary for the faithful passage of chromosomes from one daughter cell to the next during mitosis in yeast, and it is crucial for germline development in the fruitfly. Previously, we showed that mouse Chtf18 is expressed throughout the germline, suggesting a role for CHTF18 in mammalian gametogenesis. To determine the role of CHTF18 in mammalian germ cell development, we derived mice carrying null and conditional mutations in the Chtf18 gene. Chtf18-null males exhibit 5-fold decreased sperm concentrations compared to wild-type controls, resulting in subfertility. Loss of Chtf18 results in impaired spermatogenesis; spermatogenic cells display abnormal morphology, and the stereotypical arrangement of cells within seminiferous tubules is perturbed. Meiotic recombination is defective and homologous chromosomes separate prematurely during prophase I. Repair of DNA double-strand breaks is delayed and incomplete; both RAD51 and γH2AX persist in prophase I. In addition, MLH1 foci are decreased in pachynema. These findings demonstrate essential roles for CHTF18 in mammalian spermatogenesis and meiosis, and suggest that CHTF18 may function during the double-strand break repair pathway to promote the formation of crossovers.
The Roles of Cohesins in Mitosis, Meiosis, and Human Health and Disease Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). | Pubmed ID: 24906316 Mitosis and meiosis are essential processes that occur during development. Throughout these processes, cohesion is required to keep the sister chromatids together until their separation at anaphase. Cohesion is created by multiprotein subunit complexes called cohesins. Although the subunits differ slightly in mitosis and meiosis, the canonical cohesin complex is composed of four subunits that are quite diverse. The cohesin complexes are also important for DNA repair, gene expression, development, and genome integrity. Here we provide an overview of the roles of cohesins during these different events as well as their roles in human health and disease, including the cohesinopathies. Although the exact roles and mechanisms of these proteins are still being elucidated, this review serves as a guide for the current knowledge of cohesins.