In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (36)

Articles by Michelle Griffin in JoVE

Other articles by Michelle Griffin on PubMed

A Randomised Comparison of Two Brachytherapy Devices for the Treatment of Uterine Cervical Carcinoma

Radiotherapy and Oncology : Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Mar, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15763304

Two brachytherapy applicators commonly used in the treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma, the Henschke shielded and Fletcher-Suit-Declos, were randomly and prospectively compared in vivo in 20 patients. Based on two-dimensional planning and the ICRU-38 bladder and rectal reference points, an advantage for the shielded Henschke applicator was demonstrated.

Comparison of Histochemical Methods for Murine Eosinophil Detection in an RSV Vaccine-enhanced Inflammation Model

Toxicologic Pathology. Feb, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19181630

A comparative study of histochemical detection of eosinophils in fixed murine tissue is lacking. Five histochemical methods previously reported for eosinophil detection were quantitatively and qualitatively compared in an established murine RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model. Nonspecific neutrophil staining was evaluated in tissue sections of neutrophilic soft tissue lesions and bone marrow from respective animals. Eosinophils had granular red to orange-red cytoplasmic staining, depending on the method, whereas neutrophils had, when stained, a more homogenous cytoplasmic pattern. Nonspecific background staining of similar coloration was variably seen in vascular walls and erythrocytes. Astra Blue/Vital New Red, Congo Red, Luna, Modified Hematoxylin and Eosin, and Sirius Red techniques were all effective in detecting increased eosinophil recruitment compared to controls; however, differences in eosinophil quantification varied significantly between techniques. Astra Blue/Vital New Red had the best specificity for differentiating eosinophils and neutrophils but had a reduced ability to enumerate eosinophils and was the most time intensive. The Luna stain had excessive nonspecific staining of tissues and a reduced enumeration of infiltrating eosinophils, which made it suboptimal. For multiple parameters such as eosinophil detection, specificity, and contrast with background tissues, the Sirius Red followed by Congo Red and Modified Hematoxylin and Eosin methods were useful, each with their own staining qualities.

Boston Medical Center Pediatric Emergency Response to H1N1

Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN : Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19914494

Apoptosis is Differentially Regulated by Burn Severity and Dermal Location

The Journal of Surgical Research. Aug, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19439323

The cellular processes that contribute to cell death in burns are poorly understood. This study evaluated the distribution and extent of apoptosis in an established rat model of acute dermal burn injury.

Disease Phenotype of a Ferret CFTR-knockout Model of Cystic Fibrosis

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20739752

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease that affects multiple organs. It is caused by mutations in CFTR. Animal modeling of this disease has been challenging, with species- and strain-specific differences in organ biology and CFTR function influencing the emergence of disease pathology. Here, we report the phenotype of a CFTR-knockout ferret model of CF. Neonatal CFTR-knockout ferrets demonstrated many of the characteristics of human CF disease, including defective airway chloride transport and submucosal gland fluid secretion; variably penetrant meconium ileus (MI); pancreatic, liver, and vas deferens disease; and a predisposition to lung infection in the early postnatal period. Severe malabsorption by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the primary cause of death in CFTR-knockout kits that escaped MI. Elevated liver function tests in CFTR-knockout kits were corrected by oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, and the addition of an oral proton-pump inhibitor improved weight gain and survival. To overcome the limitations imposed by the severe intestinal phenotype, we cloned 4 gut-corrected transgenic CFTR-knockout kits that expressed ferret CFTR specifically in the intestine. One clone passed feces normally and demonstrated no detectable ferret CFTR expression in the lung or liver. The animals described in this study are likely to be useful tools for dissecting CF disease pathogenesis and developing treatments.

Interventions Targeted at Women to Encourage the Uptake of Cervical Screening

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. May, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21563135

World-wide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Increasing the uptake of screening, alongside increasing informed choice is of great importance in controlling this disease through prevention and early detection.

The Value of Postoperative/preadjuvant Chemotherapy Computed Tomography in the Management of Patients with Ovarian Cancer

International Journal of Gynecological Cancer : Official Journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21721161

The objectives of the study were to compare the operative assessment of residual disease with the postoperative computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent primary surgical cytoreduction or interval debulking surgery to residual disease 1 cm or less and to assess the effect of potential prognostic factors on patient survival.

Electrical Stimulation in Bone Healing: Critical Analysis by Evaluating Levels of Evidence

Eplasty. 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21847434

Direct current, capacitive coupling, and inductive coupling are modes of electrical stimulation (ES) used to enhance bone healing. It is important to assess the effectiveness of ES for bone healing to ensure optimization for clinical practice. This review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE) for the application of ES to enhance bone healing and investigate the proposed mechanism for its stimulatory effect.

Degenerate Wave and Capacitive Coupling Increase Human MSC Invasion and Proliferation While Reducing Cytotoxicity in an in Vitro Wound Healing Model

PloS One. 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21858102

Non-unions pose complications in fracture management that can be treated using electrical stimulation (ES). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are essential in fracture healing; however, the effect of different clinical ES waveforms on BMMSCs cellular activities remains unknown. We compared the effects of direct current (DC), capacitive coupling (CC), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and degenerate wave (DW) on cellular activities including cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell-kinetics and apoptosis by stimulating human-BMMSCs 3 hours a day, up to 5 days. In addition, migration and invasion were assessed using fluorescence microscopy and by quantifying gene and protein expression. We found that DW had the greatest proliferative and least apoptotic and cytotoxic effects compared to other waveforms. DC, DW and CC stimulations resulted in a higher number of cells in S phase and G(2)/M phase as shown by cell cycle analysis. CC and DW caused more cells to invade collagen and showed increased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. DC increased cellular migration in a scratch-wound assay and all ES waveforms enhanced expression of migratory genes with DC having the greatest effect. All ES treated cells showed similar progenitor potential as determined by MSC differentiation assay. All above findings were shown to be statistically significant (p<0.05). We conclude that ES can influence BMMSCs activities, especially DW and CC, which show greater invasion and higher cell proliferation compared to other types of ES. Application of DW or CC to the fracture site may help in the recruitment of BMMSCs to the wound that may enhance rate of bone healing at the fracture site.

The Attitudes of British Surgical Trainees About the Treatment of HIV-infected Patients

Surgery Today. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22183050

As the incidence of HIV increases, the occupational risk of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV) infection also increases, leading to heightened anxiety within surgical practice. This study assessed the attitudes of surgeons treating HIV-infected patients.

The Value of Medical Student Specific Journals and Surgical Conferences to Future Surgeons

International Journal of Surgery (London, England). 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22285472

Chondrogenic Differentiation of Adult MSCs

Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. Jul, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22563661

Chondrogenesis is a vital part of adult life, as cartilage is important not only for articulation of joints but also maintenance functions of the body. Chondrogenesis is a five way process of intricate events controlled by specific genes and cell-cell interactions which has been documented over recent years. This review highlights the current literature regarding the process of endochondral ossification and covers the different level of control at agent level. Due to the proliferative nature of chondrogenesis and using chondrocytes for self renewal and repair, current research involves finding ways in which to improve and replicate expansion of chondrocytes. The review summarises ways in which ex vitro expansion can be manipulated using growth factors, external sources and scaffolds.

Simplified and Versatile Method for Isolation of High-quality RNA from Pancreas

BioTechniques. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22578126

Isolation of high-quality RNA from pancreas is challenging because the organ contains large quantities of RNases and undergoes autolysis upon harvest. Here we present a simplified perfusion method of the pancreas using an RNase inhibitor. The technique consistently yields high-quality RNA from stored pancreas samples suitable for molecular biology applications, including quantitative RT-PCR. Yields are comparable to RNA isolated from pancreas immediately, but superior to RNA isolated from stored samples that were snap-frozen or immersed in an RNase inhibitor solution. In addition, when compared to the previously reported in situ ductal perfusion technique, our method does not cause histological artifacts.

Pancreatic Damage in Fetal and Newborn Cystic Fibrosis Pigs Involves the Activation of Inflammatory and Remodeling Pathways

The American Journal of Pathology. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22683312

Pancreatic disease has onset in utero in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), and progresses over time to complete destruction of the organ. The exact mechanisms leading to pancreatic damage in CF are incompletely understood. Inflammatory cells are present in the pancreas of newborn pigs with CF (CF pigs) and humans, which suggests that inflammation may have a role in the destructive process. We wondered whether tissue inflammation and genes associated with inflammatory pathways were increased in the pancreas of fetal CF pigs [83 to 90 days gestation (normal pig gestation is ~114 days)] and newborn pigs. Compared with fetal pigs without CF (non-CF pigs), in fetal CF pigs, the pancreas exhibited patchy inflammation and acinar atrophy, with progression in distribution and severity in neonatal CF pigs. Large-scale transcript profiling revealed that the pancreas in fetal and newborn CF pigs exhibited significantly increased expression of proinflammatory, complement cascade, and profibrotic genes when compared with fetal and newborn non-CF pigs. Acinar cells exhibited increased apoptosis in the pancreas of fetal and newborn CF pigs. α-Smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor β1 were increased in both fetal and newborn CF pig pancreas, suggesting activation of profibrotic pathways. Cell proliferation and mucous cell metaplasia were detected in newborn, but not fetal, CF pigs, indicating that they were not an initiator of pathogenesis but a response. Proinflammatory, complement cascade, proapoptotic, and profibrotic pathways are activated in CF pig pancreas, and likely contribute to the destructive process.

Pancreatic and Biliary Secretion Are Both Altered in Cystic Fibrosis Pigs

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22936270

The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are commonly involved in cystic fibrosis (CF), and acidic, dehydrated, and protein-rich secretions are characteristic findings. Pancreatic function studies in humans have been done by sampling the jejunal fluid. However, it has been difficult to separately study the function of pancreatic and biliary systems in humans with CF, because jejunal fluid contains a mixture of bile and pancreatic fluids. In contrast, pancreatic and biliary ducts open separately into the porcine intestine; therefore, biliary and pancreatic fluid can be individually analyzed in CF pigs. We studied newborn wild-type (WT) and CF pigs and found that CFTR was localized to the pancreatic ducts. We collected bile and pancreatic fluid and analyzed pancreatic enzymes with activity assays and immunoblot. Pancreatic enzyme expression was significantly decreased in CF compared with WT pigs. The volume and pH of pancreatic fluid were significantly lower and protein concentration was >5-fold higher in CF pigs. Secretin stimulation increased pancreatic fluid volume and pH in WT, but not CF, pigs. Baseline bile volume did not differ between WT and CF pigs, but volume did not increase in response to secretin in CF pigs. Bile pH was lower and protein concentration was twofold higher in CF pigs. These results indicate that pancreatic and biliary secretions are altered in CF pigs. Abnormal pancreatic and biliary secretion in CF may have important implications in disease pathogenesis.

Enhancement of Differentiation and Mineralisation of Osteoblast-like Cells by Degenerate Electrical Waveform in an in Vitro Electrical Stimulation Model Compared to Capacitive Coupling

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24039834

Electrical stimulation (ES) is effective in enhancing bone healing, however the best electrical waveform, mode of application and mechanisms remains unclear. We recently reported the in vitro differential healing response of a novel electrical waveform called degenerate sine wave (DW) compared to other forms of ES. This study further explores this original observation on osteoblast cells. Here, we electrically stimulated SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells with DW in an in vitro ES chamber (referred to as 'DW stimulation') and compared the intracellular effects to capacitive coupling (CC) stimulation. ES lasted for 4 h, followed by an incubation period of 20 h and subsequent ES for 4 additional hours. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation of the osteoblast-like cells were evaluated to determine the cell maturation process. DW significantly enhanced the differentiation of cells when compared to CC stimulation with increased alkaline phosphatase and collagen I gene expression by quantitative real time- polymerase chain reaction analysis (p<0.01). Moreover, DW significantly increased the mineralisation of cells compared to CC stimulation. Furthermore the transcription of osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein (p<0.05) was also up regulated by DW. However, ES did not augment the proliferation of cells. Translational analysis by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed increased collagen I, osteocalcin and osteonectin expression after DW than CC stimulation. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that DW stimulation in an in vitro ES chamber has a significant effect on maturation of osteoblast-like cells compared to CC stimulation of the same magnitude.

Ovarian Cancer Screening--current Status, Future Directions

Gynecologic Oncology. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24316306

Evidence of a mortality benefit continues to elude ovarian cancer (OC) screening. Data from the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial which used a screening strategy incorporating CA125 cut-off and transvaginal ultrasound has not shown mortality benefit. The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is using the Risk of Ovarian Cancer (ROC) time series algorithm to interpret CA125, which has shown an encouraging sensitivity and specificity however the mortality data will only be available in 2015. The article explores the impact of growing insights into disease aetiology and evolution and biomarker discovery on future screening strategies. A better understanding of the target lesion, improved design of biomarker discovery studies, a focus on detecting low volume disease using cancer specific markers, novel biospecimens such as cervical cytology and targeted imaging and use of time series algorithms for interpreting markers profile suggests that a new era in screening is underway.

The Race to Residency: Publication Practices of Medical Students Interested in Plastic Surgery

International Journal of Surgery (London, England). 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24509401

Outcomes After Trifocal Femoral Fractures

Case Reports in Surgery. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24800097

Trifocal femur fractures are those of the femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal femur. These high-energy injuries predominantly occur in young people with the potential for long-term complications and disability. We present the cases of two men who were treated with proximal dynamic hip screws and distal periarticular locking plates to effectively manage trifocal femur fractures. Our cases have shown union at 2 years with good functional outcomes without the need for reintervention. We provide evidence for a successful surgical treatment option for these rare and complex injuries.

Influence of Foot Ulceration on Cause-specific Mortality in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Journal of Vascular Surgery. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24865783

The purpose of this study was to assess the odds of all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) compared with those with diabetes and no history of DFU. In addition, we sought to determine the strength of association of DFU with cardiovascular and nonvascular mortality.

The Use of Adipose Stem Cells in Cranial Facial Surgery

Stem Cell Reviews. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24913279

Craniofacial malformations, have devastating psychosocial implications for many adults and children and causes huge socioeconomic burden. Currently craniofacial defects require soft tissue transfer, bone grafting techniques or difficult procedures such as microvascular free flaps. Such tissues are often limited in quantity, their harvest causes secondary large donor site defects and they lack the capability to fully restore previous form and function. Stem cell technology is being utilised for various tissue and organs of the body and consequently surgeons are eager to transfer these principles for craniofacial surgery. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an exciting stem cell source for craniofacial surgeons due to their easy and painless isolation, relatively large abundance and familiarity with the harvesting procedure. ADSCs also have multiple desirable properties including adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic potential, enhancement of angiogenesis and immunodulatory function. Due to these advantageous characteristics, ASDCs have been explored to repair craniofacial bone, soft tissue and cartilage. The desirable characteristics of ADSCs for craniofacial surgical applications will be explained. We report the experimental and clinical studies that have explored the use of ADSCs for bone, cartilage and soft tissue craniofacial defects. We conclude by establishing the key questions that are preventing the clinical application of ADSCs for craniofacial surgery.

Flap Decisions and Options in Soft Tissue Coverage of the Upper Limb

The Open Orthopaedics Journal. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25408782

Soft tissue deficiency in the upper limb is a common presentation following trauma, burns infection and tumour removal. Soft tissue coverage of the upper limb is a challenging problem for reconstructive surgeons to manage. The ultimate choice of soft tissue coverage will depend on the size and site of the wound, complexity of the injury, status of surrounding tissue, exposure of the vital structures and health status of the patient. There are several local cutaneous flaps that provide adequate soft tissue coverage for small sized defects of the hand, forearm and arm. When these flaps are limited in their mobility regional flaps and free flaps can be utilised. Free tissue transfer provides vascularised soft tissue coverage in addition to the transfer of bone, nerve and tendons. Careful consideration of free flap choice, meticulous intraoperative dissection and elevation accompanied by post-operative physiotherapy are required for successful outcomes for the patient. Several free flaps are available for reconstruction in the upper limb including the groin flap, anterolateral flap, radial forearm flap, lateral arm flap and scapular flap. In this review we will provide local, regional and free flap choice options for upper limb reconstruction, highlighting the benefits and challenges of different approaches.

Glycaemic Regulation and Insulin Secretion Are Abnormal in Cystic Fibrosis Pigs Despite Sparing of Islet Cell Mass

Clinical Science (London, England : 1979). Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25142104

Diabetes is a common and significant co-morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). The pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is incompletely understood. Because exocrine pancreatic disease is similar between humans and pigs with CF, the CF pig model has the potential to contribute significantly to the understanding of CFRD pathogenesis. We determined the structure of the endocrine pancreas in fetal, newborn and older CF and non-CF pigs and assessed endocrine pancreas function by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT). In fetal pigs, pancreatic insulin and glucagon density was similar between CF and non-CF. In newborn and older pigs, the insulin and glucagon density was unchanged between CF and non-CF per total pancreatic area, but increased per remnant lobular tissue in CF reflecting exocrine pancreatic loss. Although fasting glucose levels were not different between CF and non-CF newborns, CF newborns demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance and increased glucose area under the curve during IV-GTT. Second phase insulin secretion responsiveness was impaired in CF newborn pigs and significantly lower than that observed in non-CF newborns. Older CF pigs had elevated random blood glucose levels compared with non-CF. In summary, glycaemic abnormalities and insulin secretion defects were present in newborn CF pigs and spontaneous hyperglycaemia developed over time. Functional changes in CF pig pancreas were not associated with a decline in islet cell mass. Our results suggest that functional islet abnormalities, independent of structural islet loss, contribute to the early pathogenesis of CFRD.

Control of Stem Cell Fate by Engineering Their Micro and Nanoenvironment

World Journal of Stem Cells. Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25621104

Stem cells are capable of long-term self-renewal and differentiation into specialised cell types, making them an ideal candidate for a cell source for regenerative medicine. The control of stem cell fate has become a major area of interest in the field of regenerative medicine and therapeutic intervention. Conventional methods of chemically inducing stem cells into specific lineages is being challenged by the advances in biomaterial technology, with evidence highlighting that material properties are capable of driving stem cell fate. Materials are being designed to mimic the clues stem cells receive in their in vivo stem cell niche including topographical and chemical instructions. Nanotopographical clues that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo have shown to regulate stem cell differentiation. The delivery of ECM components on biomaterials in the form of short peptides sequences has also proved successful in directing stem cell lineage. Growth factors responsible for controlling stem cell fate in vivo have also been delivered via biomaterials to provide clues to determine stem cell differentiation. An alternative approach to guide stem cells fate is to provide genetic clues including delivering DNA plasmids and small interfering RNAs via scaffolds. This review, aims to provide an overview of the topographical, chemical and molecular clues that biomaterials can provide to guide stem cell fate. The promising features and challenges of such approaches will be highlighted, to provide directions for future advancements in this exciting area of stem cell translation for regenerative medicine.

Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

Eplasty. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26301002

Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field.

Electrical Stimulation Differentiates Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSC) to a Neurological Phenotype

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26397587

Enhancing Tissue Integration and Angiogenesis of a Novel Nanocomposite Polymer Using Plasma Surface Polymerisation, an in Vitro and in Vivo Study

Biomaterials Science. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26474453

Current surgical reconstruction of facial defects including nose or ear involves harvesting patient's own autologous tissue, causing donor site morbidity and is limited by tissue availability. The use of alternative synthetic materials is also limited due to complications related to poor tissue integration and angiogenesis, which lead to extrusion of implants and infection. We intend to meet this clinical challenge by using a novel nanocomposite called polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), which has already been successfully taken to the clinical bench-side as a replacement for trachea, tear duct and vascular by-pass graft. In this study, we aimed to enhance tissue integration and angiogenesis of POSS-PCU using an established surface treatment technique, plasma surface polymerisation (PSP), functionalising the surface using NH2 and COOH chemical groups. Physical characterisation of scaffolds was achieved by using a number of techniques, including water contact angle, SEM, AFM and XPS to study the effects of PSM modification on the POSS-PCU nanocomposite in detail, which has not been previously documented. Wettability evaluation confirmed that scaffolds become hydrophilic and AFM analysis confirmed that nano topographical alterations resulted as a consequence of PSP treatment. Chemical functionalisation was confirmed using XPS, which suggested the presence of NH2 and COOH functional groups on the scaffolds. The modified scaffolds were then tested both in vitro and in vivo to investigate the potential of PSP modified POSS-PCU scaffolds on tissue integration and angiogenesis. In vitro analysis confirmed that PSM modification resulted in higher cellular growth, proliferation and ECM production as assessed by biochemical assays and immunofluorescence. Subcutaneous implantation of modified POSS-PCU scaffolds was then carried out over 12-weeks, resulting in enhanced tissue integration and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates a simple and cost effective surface modification method to overcome the current challenge of implant extrusion and infection caused by poor integration and angiogenesis.

Slow Chlorine Releasing Compounds: A Viable Sterilisation Method for Bioabsorbable Nanocomposite Biomaterials

Journal of Biomaterials Applications. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26538358

Selection of the appropriate sterilisation method for biodegradable materials has been a challenging task. Many conventional sterilisation methods are not suitable for the next generation of biomaterials, mainly due to their complex composition, based on nanomaterials, often incorporating bioactive moieties. In this study, we investigate sterilisation efficacy of slow chlorine releasing compound sodium dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate (SDIC) for polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-poly(caprolactone urea-urethane) (PCL) scaffolds in comparison with conventional sterilisation methods.

The Regenerative Role of Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ADSC) in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

International Wound Journal. Feb, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26833722

The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESC) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in clinical situations is limited because of regulations and ethical considerations even though these cells are theoretically highly beneficial. Adult mesenchymal stem cells appear to be an ideal stem cell population for practical regenerative medicine. Among these cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have the potential to differentiate the mesenchymal, ectodermal and endodermal lineages and are easy to harvest. Additionally, adipose tissue yields a high number of ADSC per volume of tissue. Based on this background knowledge, the purpose of this review is to summarise and describe the proliferation and differentiation capacities of ADSC together with current preclinical data regarding the use of ADSC as regenerative tools in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Development of Mechano-responsive Polymeric Scaffolds Using Functionalized Silica Nano-fillers for the Control of Cellular Functions

Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27013128

We demonstrate an efficient method to produce mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds which can alter cellular functions using two different functionalized (OH and NH2) silica nano-fillers. Fumed silica-hydroxyl and fumed silica-amine nano-fillers were mixed with a biocompatible polymer (POSS-PCU) at various wt% to produce scaffolds. XPS and mechanical testing demonstrate that bulk mechanical properties are modified without changing the scaffold's surface chemistry. Mechanical testing showed significant change in bulk properties of POSS-PCU scaffolds with an addition of silica nanofillers as low as 1% (P<0.01). Scaffolds modified with NH2 silica showed significantly higher bulk mechanical properties compared to the one modified with the OH group. Enhanced cell adhesion, proliferation and collagen production over 14days were observed on scaffolds with higher bulk mechanical properties (NH2) compared to those with lower ones (unmodified and OH modified) (P<0.05) during in vitro analysis. This study provides an effective method of manufacturing mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds, which can help to customize cellular responses for biomaterial applications.


Depression and Anxiety. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27038412

DNA methylation of the SKA2 gene has recently been implicated as a biomarker of suicide risk and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To examine the specificity and reliability of these findings, we examined associations between SKA2 DNA methylation, broad dimensions of psychiatric symptoms, and suicide phenotypes in adults with high levels of trauma exposure.

Adipose Regeneration and Implications for Breast Reconstruction: Update and the Future

Gland Surgery. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27047789

The evolution of breast reconstruction and management of breast cancer has evolved significantly since the earliest descriptions in the Edwin Smith Papyrus (3,000 BC). The development of surgical and scientific expertise has changed the way that women are managed, and plastic surgeons are now able to offer a wide range of reconstructive options to suit individual needs. Beyond the gold standard autologous flap based reconstructions, regenerative therapies promise the elimination of donor site morbidity whilst providing equivalent aesthetic and functional outcomes. Future research aims to address questions regarding ideal cell source, optimisation of scaffold composition and interaction of de novo adipose tissue in the microenvironment of breast cancer.

Three-dimensional Printing of Models of Cleft Lip and Palate

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27200251

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Detection of Mcr-1 Among Escherichia Coli Clinical Isolates Collected Worldwide As Part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in 2014 and 2015

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27401568

Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Surgically Managed Perilunate Dislocation: Outcomes After Perilunate Dislocation

Hand (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27418885

Perilunate dislocations (PLDs) are uncommon high-energy injuries that may result in significant morbidity if inadequately treated. We report the midterm outcomes following surgical intervention and the validity of the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) score as an assessment tool post injury.

Long-Term Secondary Care Costs of Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study Nested Within the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS)

PloS One. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27829038

There is limited evidence on the costs of Endometrial Cancer (EC) by stage of disease. We estimated the long-term secondary care costs of EC according to stage at diagnosis in an English population-based cohort.

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