In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (15)

Articles by Silvia Murillo-Cuesta in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

1Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBm) Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPAZ), 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 5Departmento de Otorrino laringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz

JoVE 54951

Other articles by Silvia Murillo-Cuesta on PubMed

Direct Drug Application to the Round Window: a Comparative Study of Ototoxicity in Rats

Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19861195

To assess the validity of inducing ototoxicity in rats by applying a sponge soaked in kanamycin and furosemide on the round window.

Melanin Precursors Prevent Premature Age-related and Noise-induced Hearing Loss in Albino Mice

Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19843244

Strial melanocytes are required for normal development and correct functioning of the cochlea. Hearing deficits have been reported in albino individuals from different species, although melanin appears to be not essential for normal auditory function. We have analyzed the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) of two transgenic mice: YRT2, carrying the entire mouse tyrosinase (Tyr) gene expression-domain and undistinguishable from wild-type pigmented animals; and TyrTH, non-pigmented but ectopically expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in melanocytes, which generate the precursor metabolite, L-DOPA, but not melanin. We show that young albino mice present a higher prevalence of profound sensorineural deafness and a poorer recovery of auditory thresholds after noise-exposure than transgenic mice. Hearing loss was associated with absence of cochlear melanin or its precursor metabolites and latencies of the central auditory pathway were unaltered. In summary, albino mice show impaired hearing responses during ageing and after noise damage when compared to YRT2 and TyrTH transgenic mice, which do not show the albino-associated ABR alterations. These results demonstrate that melanin precursors, such as L-DOPA, have a protective role in the mammalian cochlea in age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.

A Comparative Study of Age-related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice

Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20661454

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1(-/-) null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1(+/+) and null Igf1(-/-) mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1(-/-) null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1(+/+) wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1(-/-) null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or ameliorate age-related hearing loss.

The Role of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in the Physiopathology of Hearing

Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21845174

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of polypeptides of insulin, which play a central role in embryonic development and adult nervous system homeostasis by endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine mechanisms. IGF-I is fundamental for the regulation of cochlear development, growth, and differentiation, and its mutations are associated with hearing loss in mice and men. Low levels of IGF-I have been shown to correlate with different human syndromes showing hearing loss and with presbyacusis. Animal models are fundamental to understand the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that contribute to human hearing loss. In the mouse, IGF-I serum levels decrease with aging and there is a concomitant hearing loss and retinal degeneration. In the Igf1(-/-) null mouse, hearing loss is due to neuronal loss, poor innervation of the sensory hair cells, and age-related stria vascularis alterations. In the inner ear, IGF-I actions are mediated by intracellular signaling networks, RAF, AKT, and p38 MAPK protein kinases modulate the expression and activity of transcription factors, as AP1, MEF2, FoxM1, and FoxP3, leading to the regulation of cell cycle and metabolism. Therapy with rhIGF-I has been approved in humans for the treatment of poor linear growth and certain neurodegenerative diseases. This review will discuss these findings and their implications in new IGF-I-based treatments for the protection or repair of hearing loss.

Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 (IRS2)-deficient Mice Show Sensorineural Hearing Loss That is Delayed by Concomitant Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) Loss of Function

Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22160220

The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are key mediators of insulin and insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-1B dephosphorylates and inactivates both insulin and IGF-1 receptors. IRS2-deficient mice present altered hepatic insulin signaling and β-cell failure and develop type 2-like diabetes. In addition, IRS2 deficiency leads to developmental defects in the nervous system. IGF1 gene mutations cause syndromic sensorineural hearing loss in humans and mice. However, the involvement of IRS2 and PTP1B, two IGF-1 downstream signaling mediators, in hearing onset and loss has not been studied. Our objective was to study the hearing function and cochlear morphology of Irs2-null mice and the impact of PTP1B deficiency. We have studied the auditory brainstem responses and the cochlear morphology of systemic Irs2⁻/⁻Ptpn1⁺/⁺, Irs2⁺/⁺Ptpn1⁻/⁻ and Irs2⁻/⁻Ptpn1⁻/⁻ mice at different postnatal ages. The results indicated that Irs2⁻/⁻Ptpn1⁺/⁺ mice present a profound congenital sensorineural deafness before the onset of diabetes and altered cochlear morphology with hypoinnervation of the cochlear ganglion and aberrant stria vascularis, compared with wild-type mice. Simultaneous PTP1B deficiency in Irs2⁻/⁻Ptpn1⁻/⁻ mice delays the onset of deafness. We show for the first time that IRS2 is essential for hearing and that PTP1B inhibition may be useful for treating deafness associated with hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes.

IGF-I Deficiency and Hearing Loss: Molecular Clues and Clinical Implications

Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews : PER. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23957197

Sensorineural hearing loss is a clinical heterogeneous disorder and a significant health-care problem with tremendous socio-economic impact. According to WHO, "Over 5% of the world's population has disabling hearing loss -328 million adults and 32 million children-". In children, early hearing loss affects language acquisition. Hearing deficits are generally associated with the loss of the sensory "hair" cells and/or neurons caused by primary genetic defects or secondary to environmental factors including infections, noise and ototoxic drugs. Hearing loss cannot be reversed and currently the available treatment is limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. Studies are being conducted to develop alternative treatments combining both preventive and reparative strategies. Human insulin like growth factor (IGF) I deficiency is a rare disease associated with hearing loss, poor growth rates and mental retardation (ORPHA73272, OMIM608747). Similarly, lgf1-/- mice are dwarfs with poor survival rates and congenital profound sensorineural deafness. IGF-I is known to be a neuroprotective agent that maintains cellular metabolism, activates growth, proliferation and differentiation, and limits cell death. Here we will discuss the basic mechanisms underlying IGF-I actions in the auditory system and their clinical implications to pursue novel treatments to ameliorate hearing loss.

Programmed Cell Senescence During Mammalian Embryonic Development

Cell. Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24238962

Cellular senescence disables proliferation in damaged cells, and it is relevant for cancer and aging. Here, we show that senescence occurs during mammalian embryonic development at multiple locations, including the mesonephros and the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, which we have analyzed in detail. Mechanistically, senescence in both structures is strictly dependent on p21, but independent of DNA damage, p53, or other cell-cycle inhibitors, and it is regulated by the TGF-β/SMAD and PI3K/FOXO pathways. Developmentally programmed senescence is followed by macrophage infiltration, clearance of senescent cells, and tissue remodeling. Loss of senescence due to the absence of p21 is partially compensated by apoptosis but still results in detectable developmental abnormalities. Importantly, the mesonephros and endolymphatic sac of human embryos also show evidence of senescence. We conclude that the role of developmentally programmed senescence is to promote tissue remodeling and propose that this is the evolutionary origin of damage-induced senescence.

Treatment with N- and C-terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

PloS One. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24503961

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1-36) and PTHrP (107-111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1-36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1-36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone.

Swept-sine Noise-induced Damage As a Hearing Loss Model for Preclinical Assays

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25762930

Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz ("violet" noises) to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) inhibitors P17 and P144 on NIHL. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise (VS) with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz) and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL) for 30 min. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by VS depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift (TS) in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of NIHL, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.

Transforming Growth Factor β1 Inhibition Protects from Noise-induced Hearing Loss

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25852546

Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-β as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-β1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-β1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-β1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

Corrigendum: Transforming Growth Factor β1 Inhibition Protects from Noise-induced Hearing Loss

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26005416

Corrigendum To: Swept-sine Noise-induced Damage As a Hearing Loss Model for Preclinical Assays

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26029100

[This corrects the article on p. 7 in vol. 7, PMID: 25762930.].

Comparative Gene Expression Study of the Vestibular Organ of the Igf1 Deficient Mouse Using Whole-transcript Arrays

Hearing Research. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26341476

The auditory and vestibular organs form the inner ear and have a common developmental origin. Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has a central role in the development of the cochlea and maintenance of hearing. Its deficiency causes sensorineural hearing loss in man and mice. During chicken early development, IGF-1 modulates neurogenesis of the cochleovestibular ganglion but no further studies have been conducted to explore the potential role of IGF-1 in the vestibular system. In this study we have compared the whole transcriptome of the vestibular organ from wild type and Igf1(-/-) mice at different developmental and postnatal times. RNA was prepared from E18.5, P15 and P90 vestibular organs of Igf1(-/-) and Igf1(+/+) mice and the transcriptome analysed in triplicates using Affymetrix(®) Mouse Gene 1.1 ST Array Plates. These plates are whole-transcript arrays that include probes to measure both messenger (mRNA) and long intergenic non-coding RNA transcripts (lincRNA), with a coverage of over 28 thousand coding transcripts and over 7 thousands non-coding transcripts. Given the complexity of the data we used two different methods VSN-RMA and mmBGX to analyse and compare the data. This is to better evaluate the number of false positives and to quantify uncertainty of low signals. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes that we described using functional analysis and validated using RT-qPCR. The morphology of the vestibular organ did not show differences between genotypes and no evident alterations were observed in the vestibular sensory areas of the null mice. However, well-defined cellular alterations were found in the vestibular neurons with respect their number and size. Although these mice did not show a dramatic vestibular phenotype, we conducted a functional analysis on differentially expressed genes between genotypes and across time. This was with the aim to identify new pathways that are involved in the development of the vestibular organ as well as pathways that maybe affected by the lack of IGF-1 and be associated to the morphological changes of the vestibular neurons that we observed in the Igf1(-/-) mice.

Autophagy Resolves Early Retinal Inflammation in Igf1-deficient Mice

Disease Models & Mechanisms. Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27483352

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a growth factor with differentiating, anti-apoptotic and metabolic functions in the periphery, and anti-inflammatory properties in the nervous system. Mice that have mutations in the Igf1 gene, rendering the gene product inactive (Igf1(-/-)), present with age-related visual loss accompanied by structural alterations in the first synapses of the retinal pathway. Recent advances have revealed a crucial role of autophagy in immunity and inflammation. Keeping in mind this close relationship, we aimed to decipher these processes in the context of the defects that occur during ageing in the retina of Igf1(-/-) mice. Tnfa and Il1b mRNAs, and phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK were elevated in the retinas of 6- and 12-month old Igf1(-/-) mice compared to those in age-matched Igf1(+/+) controls. In 6-month-old Igf1(-/-) retinas, increased mRNA levels of the autophagy mediators Becn1, Atg9, Atg5 and Atg4, decreased p62 (also known as SQSTM1) protein expression together with an increased LC3-II:LC3-I ratio reflected active autophagic flux. However, in retinas from 12-month-old Igf1(-/-) mice, Nlrp3 mRNA, processing of the IL1β pro-form and immunostaining of active caspase-1 were elevated compared to those in age-matched Igf1(+/+) controls, suggesting activation of the inflammasome. This effect concurred with accumulation of autophagosomes and decreased autophagic flux in the retina. Microglia localization and status of activation in the retinas of 12-month-old Igf1(+/+) and Igf1(-/-) mice, analyzed by immunostaining of Cd11b and Iba-1, showed a specific distribution pattern in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL), and revealed an increased number of activated microglia cells in the retina of 12-month-old blind Igf1(-/-) mice. Moreover, reactive gliosis was exclusively detected in the retinas from 12-month-old blind Igf1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence in a mouse model of IGF-1 deficiency that autophagy is an adaptive response that might confer protection against persistent inflammation in the retina during ageing.

Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27630560

Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background.

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