Articles by Simon Sanggaard in JoVE
Cannula Implantation into the Cisterna Magna of Rodents Anna L.R. Xavier1, Natalie Linea Hauglund1, Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou1, Qianliang Li1, Simon Sanggaard1,2, Nanhong Lou3, Iben Lundgaard3,4, Maiken Nedergaard1,3 1Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Division of Glial Therapeutics, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, 3Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Division of Glial Therapeutics, University of Rochester Medical Center, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University Here we describe a protocol to perform cisterna magna cannulation (CMc), a minimally invasive way to deliver tracers, substrates and signaling molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Combined with different imaging modalities, CMc enables glymphatic system and CSF dynamics assessment, as well as brain-wide delivery of various compounds.
Other articles by Simon Sanggaard on PubMed
Direct Neuronal Glucose Uptake Heralds Activity-dependent Increases in Cerebral Metabolism Nature Communications. | Pubmed ID: 25904018 Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging.
Quantitative Gd-DOTA Uptake from Cerebrospinal Fluid into Rat Brain Using 3D VFA-SPGR at 9.4T Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. | Pubmed ID: 28627037 We propose a quantitative technique to assess solute uptake into the brain parenchyma based on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). With this approach, a small molecular weight paramagnetic contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) is infused in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and whole brain gadolinium concentration maps are derived.