Articles by Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou in JoVE
Cannula Implantation into the Cisterna Magna of Rodents Anna L.R. Xavier1, Natalie Linea Hauglund1, Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou1, Qianliang Li1, Simon Sanggaard1,2, Nanhong Lou3, Iben Lundgaard3,4, Maiken Nedergaard1,3 1Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Division of Glial Therapeutics, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, 3Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Division of Glial Therapeutics, University of Rochester Medical Center, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University Here we describe a protocol to perform cisterna magna cannulation (CMc), a minimally invasive way to deliver tracers, substrates and signaling molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Combined with different imaging modalities, CMc enables glymphatic system and CSF dynamics assessment, as well as brain-wide delivery of various compounds.
Other articles by Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou on PubMed
FGF21 Mediates Endocrine Control of Simple Sugar Intake and Sweet Taste Preference by the Liver Cell Metabolism. | Pubmed ID: 26724858 The liver is an important integrator of nutrient metabolism, yet no liver-derived factors regulating nutrient preference or carbohydrate appetite have been identified. Here we show that the liver regulates carbohydrate intake through production of the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which markedly suppresses consumption of simple sugars, but not complex carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids. Genetic loss of FGF21 in mice increases sucrose consumption, whereas acute administration or overexpression of FGF21 suppresses the intake of both sugar and non-caloric sweeteners. FGF21 does not affect chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet tastants, instead reducing sweet-seeking behavior and meal size via neurons in the hypothalamus. This liver-to-brain hormonal axis likely represents a negative feedback loop as hepatic FGF21 production is elevated by sucrose ingestion. We conclude that the liver functions to regulate macronutrient-specific intake by producing an endocrine satiety signal that acts centrally to suppress the intake of "sweets."
FGF21 Is a Sugar-Induced Hormone Associated with Sweet Intake and Preference in Humans Cell Metabolism. | Pubmed ID: 28467924 The liking and selective ingestion of palatable foods-including sweets-is biologically controlled, and dysfunction of this regulation may promote unhealthy eating, obesity, and disease. The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) reduces sweet consumption in rodents and primates, whereas knockout of Fgf21 increases sugar consumption in mice. To investigate the relevance of these findings in humans, we genotyped variants in the FGF21 locus in participants from the Danish Inter99 cohort (n = 6,514) and examined their relationship with a detailed range of food and ingestive behaviors. This revealed statistically significant associations between FGF21 rs838133 and increased consumption of candy, as well as nominal associations with increased alcohol intake and daily smoking. Moreover, in a separate clinical study, plasma FGF21 levels increased acutely after oral sucrose ingestion and were elevated in fasted sweet-disliking individuals. These data suggest the liver may secrete hormones that influence eating behavior.
Voluntary Running Enhances Glymphatic Influx in Awake Behaving, Young Mice Neuroscience Letters. | Pubmed ID: 29079431 Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise.