In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (16)

Articles by Zev J. Gartner in JoVE

 JoVE Bioengineering

Production and Targeting of Monovalent Quantum Dots

1Department of Otolaryngology, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 3Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, 5Tetrad Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, 6Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California, San Francisco, 7Chemistry and Chemical Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 52198

Other articles by Zev J. Gartner on PubMed

Multistep Small-molecule Synthesis Programmed by DNA Templates

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Sep, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12197733

The translation of DNA sequences into synthetic products is a key requirement of our approach to evolving synthetic molecules through iterated cycles of translation, selection, and amplification. Here we report general linker and purification strategies for sequence-specific DNA-templated synthesis that collectively enable the product of a DNA-templated reaction to be isolated and to undergo subsequent DNA-templated reactions. Using these strategies, we have achieved the first multistep nucleic acid-templated small-molecule syntheses to generate two different molecules. In addition to representing a method for translating DNA templates sequence-specifically into corresponding multistep synthetic products, our findings also provide experimental support for previously proposed models invoking multistep nucleic acid-templated synthesis as mediating the prebiotic translation of replicable information into the earliest functional molecules.

Directing Otherwise Incompatible Reactions in a Single Solution by Using DNA-templated Organic Synthesis

Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Nov, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12412096

Expanding the Reaction Scope of DNA-templated Synthesis

Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). May, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 19750721

Two Enabling Architectures for DNA-templated Organic Synthesis

Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Mar, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12671971

Translation of DNA into Synthetic N-acyloxazolidines

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Apr, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15099091

The translation of DNA into synthetic molecules enables their manipulation by powerful evolution-based methods previously available only to proteins and nucleic acids. The development of increasingly sophisticated DNA-templated small-molecule syntheses is crucial to broadening the scope of this approach. Here, we report the translation of DNA templates into monocyclic and bicyclic N-acyloxazolidines using multistep DNA-templated organic synthesis. Second-generation template architectures, used for the first time in a multistep DNA-templated synthesis, together with reactions and linker cleavage strategies not previously described in a DNA-templated format, were crucial to the successful translation. The products generated in this work represent the most complex small molecules to date synthesized in a DNA sequence-programmed manner and provide the basis for DNA-templated synthetic heterocycle libraries.

Directed Evolution of Ligand Dependence: Small-molecule-activated Protein Splicing

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15247421

Artificial molecular switches that modulate protein activities in response to synthetic small molecules would serve as tools for exerting temporal and dose-dependent control over protein function. Self-splicing protein elements (inteins) are attractive starting points for the creation of such switches, because their insertion into a protein blocks the target protein's function until splicing occurs. Natural inteins, however, are not known to be regulated by small molecules. We evolved an intein-based molecular switch that transduces binding of a small molecule into the activation of an arbitrary protein of interest. Simple insertion of a natural ligand-binding domain into a minimal intein destroys splicing activity. To restore activity in a ligand-dependent manner, we linked protein splicing to cell survival or fluorescence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Iterated cycles of mutagenesis and selection yielded inteins with strong splicing activities that highly depend on 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Insertion of an evolved intein into four unrelated proteins in living cells revealed that ligand-dependent activation of protein function is general, fairly rapid, dose-dependent, and posttranslational. Our directed-evolution approach therefore evolved small-molecule dependence in a protein and also created a general tool for modulating the function of arbitrary proteins in living cells with a single cell-permeable, synthetic small molecule.

DNA-templated Organic Synthesis and Selection of a Library of Macrocycles

Science (New York, N.Y.). Sep, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15319493

The translation of nucleic acid libraries into corresponding synthetic compounds would enable selection and amplification principles to be applied to man-made molecules. We used multistep DNA-templated organic synthesis to translate libraries of DNA sequences, each containing three "codons," into libraries of sequence-programmed synthetic small-molecule macrocycles. The resulting DNA-macrocycle conjugates were subjected to in vitro selections for protein affinity. The identity of a single macrocycle possessing known target protein affinity was inferred through the sequence of the amplified DNA template surviving the selection. This work represents the translation, selection, and amplification of libraries of nucleic acids encoding synthetic small molecules rather than biological macromolecules.

Programmed Assembly of 3-dimensional Microtissues with Defined Cellular Connectivity

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19273855

Multicellular organs comprise differentiated cell types with discrete yet interdependent functions. The cells' spatial arrangements and interconnectivities, both critical elements of higher-order function, derive from complex developmental programs in vivo and are often difficult or impossible to emulate in vitro. Here, we report the bottom-up synthesis of microtissues composed of multiple cell types with programmed connectivity. We functionalized cells with short oligonucleotides to impart specific adhesive properties. Hybridization of complementary DNA sequences enabled the assembly of multicellular structures with defined cell-cell contacts. We demonstrated that the kinetic parameters of the assembly process depend on DNA sequence complexity, density, and total cell concentration. Thus, cell assembly can be highly controlled, enabling the design of microtissues with defined cell composition and stoichiometry. We used this strategy to construct a paracrine signaling network in isolated 3-dimensional microtissues.

Direct Cell Surface Modification with DNA for the Capture of Primary Cells and the Investigation of Myotube Formation on Defined Patterns

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Jun, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19505164

Previously, we reported a method for the attachment of living cells to surfaces through the hybridization of synthetic DNA strands attached to their plasma membrane. The oligonucleotides were introduced using metabolic carbohydrate engineering, which allowed reactive tailoring of the cell surface glycans for chemoselective bioconjugation. While this method is highly effective for cultured mammalian cells, we report here a significant improvement of this technique that allows the direct modification of cell surfaces with NHS-DNA conjugates. This method is rapid and efficient, allowing virtually any mammalian cell to be patterned on surfaces bearing complementary DNA in under 1 h. We demonstrate this technique using several types of cells that are generally incompatible with integrin-targeting approaches, including red blood cells and primary T-cells. Cardiac myoblasts were also captured. The immobilization procedure itself was found not to activate primary T-cells, in contrast to previously reported antibody- and lectin-based methods. Myoblast cells were patterned with high efficiency and remained undifferentiated after surface attachment. Upon changing to differentiation media, myotubes formed in the center of the patterned areas with an excellent degree of edge alignment. The availability of this new protocol greatly expands the applicability of the DNA-based attachment strategy for the generation of artificial tissues and the incorporation of living cells into device settings.

Chemically Programmed Cell Adhesion with Membrane-anchored Oligonucleotides

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22176556

Cell adhesion organizes the structures of tissues and mediates their mechanical, chemical, and electrical integration with their surroundings. Here, we describe a strategy for chemically controlling cell adhesion using membrane-anchored single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. The reagents are pure chemical species prepared from phosphoramidites synthesized in a single chemical step from commercially available starting materials. The approach enables rapid, efficient, and tunable cell adhesion, independent of proteins or glycans, by facilitating interactions with complementary labeled surfaces or other cells. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by imaging drug-induced changes in the membrane dynamics of non-adherent human cells that are chemically immobilized on a passivated glass surface.

Cellular Microfabrication: Observing Intercellular Interactions Using Lithographically-defined DNA Capture Sequences

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22512362

Previous reports have shown that synthetic DNA strands can be attached to the plasma membrane of living cells to equip them with artificial adhesion "receptors" that bind to complementary strands extending from material surfaces. This approach is compatible with a wide range of cell types, offers excellent capture efficiency, and can potentially be used to create complex multicellular arrangements through the use of multiple capture sequences. In this work, we apply an aluminum "lift off" lithography method to allow the efficient generation of complex patterns comprising different DNA sequences. The resulting surfaces are then demonstrated to be able to capture up to three distinct types of living cells in specific locations. The utility of this approach is demonstrated through the observation of patterned cells as they communicate by diffusion-based paracrine signaling. It is anticipated that the ability of this technique to create virtually any type of 2D heterogeneous cell pattern should prove highly useful for the examination of key questions in cell signaling, including stem cell differentiation and cancer metastasis.

Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors During Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

Cell Reports. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23041312

Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

Directing the Assembly of Spatially Organized Multicomponent Tissues from the Bottom Up

Trends in Cell Biology. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23067679

The complexity of the human body derives from numerous modular building blocks assembled hierarchically across multiple length scales. These building blocks, spanning sizes ranging from single cells to organs, interact to regulate development and normal organismal function but become disorganized during disease. Here, we review methods for the bottom-up and directed assembly of modular, multicellular, and tissue-like constructs in vitro. These engineered tissues will help refine our understanding of the relationship between form and function in the human body, provide new models for the breakdown in tissue architecture that accompanies disease, and serve as building blocks for the field of regenerative medicine.

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Rv3406 is a Type II Alkyl Sulfatase Capable of Sulfate Scavenging

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23762287

The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes nine putative sulfatases, none of which have a known function or substrate. Here, we characterize Mtb's single putative type II sulfatase, Rv3406, as a non-heme iron (II) and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the oxidation and subsequent cleavage of alkyl sulfate esters. Rv3406 was identified based on its homology to the alkyl sulfatase AtsK from Pseudomonas putida. Using an in vitro biochemical assay, we confirmed that Rv3406 is a sulfatase with a preference for alkyl sulfate substrates similar to those processed by AtsK. We determined the crystal structure of the apo Rv3406 sulfatase at 2.5 Å. The active site residues of Rv3406 and AtsK are essentially superimposable, suggesting that the two sulfatases share the same catalytic mechanism. Finally, we generated an Rv3406 mutant (Δrv3406) in Mtb to study the sulfatase's role in sulfate scavenging. The Δrv3406 strain did not replicate in minimal media with 2-ethyl hexyl sulfate as the sole sulfur source, in contrast to wild type Mtb or the complemented strain. We conclude that Rv3406 is an iron and α-ketoglutarate-dependent sulfate ester dioxygenase that has unique substrate specificity that is likely distinct from other Mtb sulfatases.

Formation of Targeted Monovalent Quantum Dots by Steric Exclusion

Nature Methods. Dec, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24122039

Precise control over interfacial chemistry between nanoparticles and other materials remains a major challenge that limits broad application of nanotechnology in biology. To address this challenge, we used 'steric exclusion' to completely convert commercial quantum dots (QDs) into monovalent imaging probes by wrapping each QD with a functionalized oligonucleotide. We demonstrated the utility of these QDs as modular and nonperturbing imaging probes by tracking individual Notch receptors on live cells.

A Modular Approach for Assembling Aldehyde-tagged Proteins on DNA Scaffolds

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25029632

Expansion of antibody scaffold diversity has the potential to expand the neutralizing capacity of the immune system and to generate enhanced therapeutics and probes. Systematic exploration of scaffold diversity could be facilitated with a modular and chemical scaffold for assembling proteins, such as DNA. However, such efforts require simple, modular, and site-specific methods for coupling antibody fragments or bioactive proteins to nucleic acids. To address this need, we report a modular approach for conjugating synthetic oligonucleotides to proteins with aldehyde tags at either terminus or internal loops. The resulting conjugates are assembled onto DNA-based scaffolds with low nanometer spatial resolution and can bind to live cells. Thus, this modular and site-specific conjugation strategy provides a new tool for exploring the potential of expanded scaffold diversity in immunoglobulin-based probes and therapeutics.

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