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Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the Cell membrane of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.

An Introduction to Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

JoVE 5213

Cellular and molecular neuroscience is one of the newest and fastest growing subdisciplines in neuroscience. By investigating the influences of genes, signaling molecules, and cellular morphology, researchers in this field uncover crucial insights into normal brain development and function, as well as the root causes of many pathological conditions.

This video introduction to the fascinating world of cellular and molecular neuroscience begins with a timeline of landmark studies, from the discovery of DNA in 1953 to more recent breakthroughs like the cloning of ion channels. Next, key questions in the field are introduced, such as how genes influence neuron activity and how the nervous system is modified by experience. This is followed by brief descriptions of some prominent methods used to analyze genetic material in neurons, manipulate expression of genes, and visualize neurons and their parts. Finally, several applications of molecular and cellular neuroscience are presented to demonstrate how cellular and molecular approaches can be used to profile neuron populations and explore their functions.


 Neuroscience

Patch Clamp Electrophysiology

JoVE 5202

Neuron cell membranes are populated with ion channels that control the movement of charge into and out of the cell, thereby regulating neuron firing. One extremely useful technique for investigating the biophysical properties of these channels is called patch clamp recording. In this method, neuroscientists place a polished glass micropipette against a cell and apply suction to form a high resistance seal. This process isolates a small “patch” of membrane that contains one or more ion channels. Using an electrode within the micropipette, researchers can “clamp” or control the electrical properties of the membrane, which is important for analysis of channel activity. The electrode also allows for changes in the voltage across the membrane, or the flow of ions through the membrane, to be recorded. This video begins with an overview of the principles behind patch clamp electrophysiology, an introduction to the necessary equipment, and descriptions of the various patch configurations, including whole cell, cell-attached, perforated, inside-out, and outside-out patches. Next, the key steps of a typical whole-cell patch clamp experiment are outlined, in which a current-voltage (IV) curve is generated. Finally, applications of patch clamp recording are provided to demonstrate how the biophysical propert


 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Neurophysiology

JoVE 5201

Neurophysiology is broadly defined as the study of nervous system function. In this field, scientists investigate the central and peripheral nervous systems at the level of whole organs, cellular networks, single cells, or even subcellular compartments. A unifying feature of this wide-ranging discipline is an interest in the mechanisms that lead to the generation and propagation of electrical impulses within and between neurons. This subject is important not only for our understanding of the fascinating processes driving human thought, but also for our ability to diagnose and treat disorders related to nervous system malfunction. This video will provide an introduction to the field of neurophysiology, beginning with a brief history of neurophysiological research that showcases landmark studies like Galvani’s observations of twitching frog legs and Eccles’s discovery of the chemical synapse. Next, key questions asked by neurophysiologists are introduced, followed by an overview of some prominent experimental tools used to answer those questions. The methods presented range from techniques used to investigate single cells, like patch clamping, to those that can measure activity across large regions of the brain, like electroencephalography (EEG). Finally, applications of neurophysiological research are discuss


 Neuroscience

Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals

1Section on Synaptic Pharmacology/Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2Department of Electronics Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 3Section on Transmitter Signaling/Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

JoVE 2752


 Neuroscience

Imaging Membrane Potential with Two Types of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensors

1Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, 2Center for Functional Connectomics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 3College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 4Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology

JoVE 53566


 Neuroscience

Bilateral Assessment of the Corticospinal Pathways of the Ankle Muscles Using Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences and Research, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4Department of Health Professions, Medical University of South Carolina, 5Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 6Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 7Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58944


 JoVE In-Press

Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings of Isolated Primary Epithelial Cells from the Epididymis

1School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University

JoVE 55700


 Developmental Biology

Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays

1Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, Radboudumc, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, 4Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Radboud University

JoVE 54900


 Developmental Biology

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