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Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the Cell membrane of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.

Local Field Fluorescence Microscopy: Imaging Cellular Signals in Intact Hearts

1School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 2Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Universidad de la Plata and Conicet, 3Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, 4Department of Physiology, Midwestern University, 5School of Engineering, University of California, Merced

JoVE 55202


 Biology

Imaging Membrane Potential with Two Types of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Voltage Sensors

1Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, 2Center for Functional Connectomics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 3College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 4Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology

JoVE 53566


 Neuroscience

Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition

1College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Division of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 4Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56789


 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Experimental and Analytical Approach to the Multimodal Neural Decoding of Intent During Social Interaction in Freely-behaving Human Infants

1Laboratory for Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston

JoVE 53406


 Behavior

Using TMS to Measure Motor Excitability During Action Observation

JoVE 10270

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that involves passing current through an insulated coil placed against the scalp. A brief magnetic field is created by current in the coil, and because of the physical process of induction, this leads to a current in the nearby neural tissue. Depending on the duration, frequency, and magnitude of these magnetic pulses, the underlying neural circuitry can be affected in many different ways. Here, we demonstrate the technique of single-pulse TMS, in which one brief magnetic pulse is used to stimulate the neocortex. One observable effect of TMS is that it can produce muscle twitches when applied over the motor cortex. Due to the somatotopic organization of the motor cortex, different muscles can be targeted depending on the precise placement of the coil. The electrical signals that cause these muscle twitches, called motor evoked potentials, or MEPs, can be recorded and quantified by electrodes placed on the skin over the targeted muscle. The amplitude of MEPs can be interpreted to reflect the underlying excitability of the motor cortex; for example, when the motor cortex is activated, observed MEPs are larger.


 Neuropsychology

Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays

1Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, Radboudumc, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, 4Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Radboud University

JoVE 54900


 Developmental Biology

Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings of Isolated Primary Epithelial Cells from the Epididymis

1School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 2Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University

JoVE 55700


 Developmental Biology

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