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Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)

1Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2Environmental Science and Marine Biology, Roger Williams University, 3Marine Biology Laboratory, Whitman Center, 4Department of Biology, Providence College, 5Departments of Aeronautics and Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology

JoVE 2615


 Bioengineering

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Regular Care and Maintenance of a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Laboratory: An Introduction

1Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research and Care, School of Medical sciences, Edith Cowan University, 2Centre for Clinical Research in Neuropsychiatry, Graylands Hospital, University of Western Australia, 3McCusker Alzheimer's Research foundation, 4School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, 5Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, 6School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, 7School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia

JoVE 4196


 Biology

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Use of Chironomidae (Diptera) Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae as a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol for Water Bodies

1Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, 2Biology, Chemistry & Physics, and Mathematics Department, Northern State University, 3Environmental Analysis and Outcomes Division, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 4RMB Environmental Laboratories, Inc.

JoVE 52558


 Environment

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Use of a Filter Cartridge for Filtration of Water Samples and Extraction of Environmental DNA

1Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, 2Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, 3Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryukoku University, 4Okinawa Churashima Research Center, 5Graduate School of Simulation Studies, University of Hyogo

JoVE 54741


 Environment

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Dissolved Oxygen in Surface Water

JoVE 10016

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements calculate the amount of gaseous oxygen dissolved in surface water, which is important to all oxygen-breathing life in river ecosystems, including fish species preferred for human consumption (e.g. bluegill and bass), as well as decomposer species critical to the recycling of biogeochemical materials in the system. The oxygen dissolved in lakes, rivers, and oceans is crucial for the organisms and creatures living in it. As the amount of dissolved oxygen drops below normal levels in water bodies, the water quality is harmed and creatures begin to die. In a process called eutrophication, a body of water can become hypoxic and will no longer be able to support living organisms, essentially becoming a “dead zone.” Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients cause algae populations to grow rapidly in an algal bloom. The algal bloom forms dense mats at the surface of the water blocking out two essential inputs of oxygen for water: gas exchange from the atmosphere and photosynthesis in the water due to the lack of light below the mats. As dissolved oxygen levels decline below the surface, oxygen-breathing organisms die-off in large amounts, creati


 Environmental Science

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Turbidity and Total Solids in Surface Water

JoVE 10015

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Turbidity and total solids are related measurements addressing clarity of surface waters. Turbidity is an indirect measure of water clarity that determines the amount of light that can pass through the water. Total solids is a direct measurement of solid particles suspended in water determined by weight. High levels of turbidity and total solids are caused by soil erosion, waste discharge, runoff, or changes in ecological communities including algal growth or abundance of benthic organisms that can disrupt sediments up into the water. Higher levels of turbidity and suspended solids can lower water quality by absorbing heat causing an increase in water temperature and a decrease in oxygen levels (warm water holds less oxygen). These conditions can also cause a decrease in photosynthesis as less sunlight penetrates the water, making the water unable to support some aquatic life. Suspended solids can also clog gills, smother eggs, reduce growth rates, and disrupt microhabitats of many aquatic organisms. One method of measuring turbidity includes using a Secchi disk. A Secchi disk is a metal disk with alternate black and white quarters (Figure 1). It is attached to a rope that


 Environmental Science

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Nutrients in Aquatic Ecosystems

JoVE 10023

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential plant nutrients found in aquatic ecosystems and both are monitored as a part of water quality testing because in excess amounts they can cause significant water quality problems. 

Nitrogen in water is measured as the common form nitrate (NO3-) that is dissolved in water and readily absorbed by photosynthesizers such as algae. The common form of phosphorus measured is phosphate (PO43-), which is strongly attracted to sediment particles as well as dissolved in water. In excess amounts, both nutrients can cause an increase in aquatic plant growth (algal bloom, Figure 1) that can disrupt the light, temperature, and oxygen levels in the water below and lead to eutrophication and hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen in water) forming a “dead zone” of no biological activity. Sources of nitrates and phosphorus include wastewater treatment plants, runoff from fertilized lawns and agricultural lands, faulty septic systems, animal manure runoff, and industrial waste discharge. Figu


 Environmental Science

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