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Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the Cardiovascular system.

Electrochemical Biosensing

JoVE 5796

Electrochemical biosensors detect the binding of a target molecule by sensing an oxidation-reduction event. These sensors paved the way for modern biosensing after the invention of the glucose biosensor. This video will introduce electrochemical biosensing, show the workings of the glucose biosensor, and discuss how electrochemical biosensors are used in cancer detection.


 Bioengineering

Whole Organ Tissue Culture

JoVE 5799

Whole organs can be cultured ex vivo using specialized bioreactors, with the goal of repairing or replacing entire organs. This method uses a donor organ that is stripped of all cells, leaving behind the three-dimensional structure, and is then repopulated with new cells. This video demonstrates the whole organ culture of lungs, and shows how a dynamic culture that mimics the mechanical stimulation in the body is needed to induce native tissue properties.


 Bioengineering

Chick ex ovo Culture

JoVE 5157

One strength of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a model organism for developmental biology is that the embryo develops outside the female and is easily accessible for experimental manipulation. Many techniques allow scientists to examine chicken embryos inside the eggshell (in ovo), but embryonic access can be limited at later stages of development. Fortunately, chicks can also be cultured ex ovo, or outside of the eggshell. The major advantage to ex ovo culture is greater access to tissues that might otherwise be obstructed by the shell or the orientation of the chick within the egg, especially for embryos in later stages of development. There are two principle strategies to ex ovo culture: whole yolk culture and explant culture. During whole yolk culture, the eggshell is cracked and the contents are transferred to a simple housing vessel. However, in explant culture methods, the embryo is excised from the yolk and mounted in the housing vessel to maintain membrane tension, which is important for normal development. Basic protocols for whole-yolk and explant techniques will be provided in this video, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of culturing chicks outside of the shell. Finally, experimental applications of ex ovo culture will be discussed, demonstrating how this


 Biology II

Peripheral Vascular Exam Using a Continuous Wave Doppler

JoVE 10123

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a common condition affecting older adults and includes disease of the peripheral arteries and veins. While the history and physical exam offer clues to its diagnosis, Doppler ultrasound has become a routine part of the bedside vascular examination. The video titled "The Peripheral Vascular Exam" gave a detailed review of the physical examination of the peripheral arterial and venous systems. This video specifically reviews the bedside assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic venous insufficiency using a handheld continuous wave Doppler. The handheld Doppler (HHD) is a simple instrument that utilizes continuous transmission and reception of ultrasound (also referred to as continuous wave Doppler) to detect changes in blood velocity as it courses through a vessel. The Doppler probe contains a transmitting element that emits ultrasound and a receiving element that detects ultrasound waves (Figure 1). The emitted ultrasound is reflected off of moving blood and back to the probe at a frequency directly related to the velocity of blood flow. The reflected signal is detected and transduced to an audible sound with a frequen


 Physical Examinations I

Invasion Assay Using 3D Matrices

JoVE 5645

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of molecules that provide a structural framework for cells and tissues and helps facilitate intercellular communication. Three-dimensional cell culture techniques have been developed to more accurately model this extracellular environment for in vitro study. While many cell processes during migration through 3D matrices are similar to those required for movement across rigid 2D surfaces, including adherence, migration through ECM also requires cells to modulate and invade this polymeric-mesh of ECM. In this video, we will present the structure and function of ECM and the basic mechanisms of how cells migrate through it. Then, we will examine the protocol of an assay for tube formation by endothelial cells, whose steps can be generalized to other experiments based on 3D matrices. We will finish by exploring several other biological questions that can be addressed using ECM invasion assays.


 Cell Biology

Blood Withdrawal I

JoVE 10246

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Blood collection is a common requirement for research studies that involve mice and rats. The method of blood withdrawal in mice and rats is dependent upon the volume of blood needed, the frequency of the sampling, the health status of the animal to be bled, and the skill level of the technician.1 All methods discussed-retro-orbital sinus bleeds, initial tail snip bleeds, and intracardiac bleeds-require the use of a general anesthesia.


 Lab Animal Research

Overview of Tissue Engineering

JoVE 5785

Tissue engineering is an emerging field, which aims to create artificial tissue from biomaterials, specific cells and growth factors. These engineered tissue constructs have far-reaching benefits, with possibilities for organ replacement and tissue repair.

This video introduces the field of tissue engineering and examines the components of engineered tissue. This video also outlines some prominent methods used to create the tissue scaffold, introduce a cell population and encourage growth and proliferation. Finally, some key challenges and important applications of the technology are demonstrated.


 Bioengineering

Tissue Regeneration with Somatic Stem Cells

JoVE 5339

Somatic or adult stem cells, like embryonic stem cells, are capable of self-renewal but demonstrate a restricted differentiation potential. Nonetheless, these cells are crucial to homeostatic processes and play an important role in tissue repair. By studying and manipulating this cell population, scientist may be able to develop new regenerative therapies for injuries and diseases.

This video first defines somatic stem cells, and then explores the role these cells play in tissue regeneration. This is emphasized in a description of a protocol that isolates muscle satellite cells and uses them to repair muscle damage in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Finally, we discuss specific tissue regeneration studies utilizing somatic stem cells.


 Developmental Biology

Tandem Mass Spectrometry

JoVE 5690

In tandem mass spectrometry a biomolecule of interest is isolated from a biological sample, and then fragmented into multiple subunits in order to help elucidate its composition and sequence. This is accomplished by having mass spectrometers in series. The first spectrometer ionizes a sample and filter ions of a specific mass to charge ratio. Filtered ions are then fragmented and passed to a second mass spectrometer where the fragments are analyzed. This video introduces the principles of tandem mass spectrometry, including mass-to-ratio selection and dissociation methods. Also shown is a general procedure for analyzing a biochemical compound using tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation. The applications section covers selection reaction monitoring, determination of protein post-translation modifications, and detection of tacrolimus levels in blood. Tandem mass spectrometry links together multiple stages of mass spectrometry to first isolate a biomolecule, and then determine aspects of its chemical makeup. Biomolecules have large, complex structures, making it difficult to determine their molecular composition. Tandem mass spectrometry selects a molecule of interest that is later fragmented into multiple subunits, which can help elucidate its identification and sequence. This video will show the


 Biochemistry

Identification of Homologous Recombination Events in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Southern Blotting and Polymerase Chain Reaction

1Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical School, 2Lab of Animal Models and Functional Genomics (LAMFG), The Key Laboratory of Animal Vaccine & Protein Engineering, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University (HUNAU), 3College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University (HUNAU), 4Lab of Molecular Cardiology (LMC), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)/National Institutes of Health (NIH), 5Transgenic Core, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58467


 JoVE In-Press

A Three-dimensional Thymic Culture System to Generate Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Tumor Antigen-Specific Thymic Emigrants

1Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 2Center for Cell-Based Therapy, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 3Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58672


 JoVE In-Press

Meso-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry Studies of Neurovascular Flows In Vitro

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, 2Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Riverside, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58902


 JoVE In-Press

The Endoscope-Assisted Minimally Invasive Retro-Sigmoid Approach (EAMIRSA): A Combination of Techniques for Improving Middle Skull Base Surgery

1Permanent Temporal Bone Dissection Laboratory, University of Perugia, 2Otolaryngology Department, Meyer Children Hospital, 3Highland Instruments, 4Otolaryngology Department, Cochlear Implant Unit, Santobono Children Hospital, 5Otolaryngology Department, Ospedale Civile of Mantua

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58522


 JoVE In-Press

Protein Kinase C-delta Inhibitor Peptide Formulation Using Gold Nanoparticles

1Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, 2Respiratory Medicine Research Laboratory, Institute of Translation Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58741


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation and Characterization of Human Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Preterm and Term Infants

1Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, Kobe Children's Hospital, 3Department of Pediatrics, Hyogo College of Medicine, 4Department of Developmental Pediatrics, Shizuoka Children's Hospital, 5Department of Pediatrics, Nihon University School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58806


 JoVE In-Press

Measurement of Ion Concentration in the Unstirred Boundary Layer with Open Patch-Clamp Pipette: Implications in Control of Ion Channels by Fluid Flow

1Department of Physiology, KU Open Innovation Center, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 2Department of Emergency Medical Services, Eulji University, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58228


 JoVE In-Press

In Vitro Method to Control Concentrations of Halogenated Gases in Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells

1Department of Perioperative Medicine, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 2Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche (CNRS UMR) 6293, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1103, Laboratoire de Génétique, Reproduction et Développement (GReD), Université Clermont Auvergne, 3Department of Pharmacology, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 4Nurse Anesthetist School, CHU Clermont-Ferrand

JoVE 58554


 Medicine

Polyethyleneimine-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles As a Vehicle for the Delivery of Small Interfering RNA to Macrophages In Vitro and In Vivo

1Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Developmental Genes & Human Diseases, Institute of Life Sciences, Southeast University, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials & Devices, School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 3Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Developmental Genes & Human Diseases, Medical School, Southeast University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58660


 JoVE In-Press

Laparoscopic Intracapsular Rotary-Cut Procedure: A Modified Myomectomy Procedure Facilitating Fertility Preservation

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, 2Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Gynecological Diagnostic Technology Research, 3Specialist of SZSM Project, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58410


 JoVE In-Press

Multimodal Bioluminescent and Positronic-emission Tomography/Computational Tomography Imaging of Multiple Myeloma Bone Marrow Xenografts in NOG Mice

1Greater Los Angeles Veteran Administration Healthcare System, 2San Diego Veterans Administration Healthcare System, 3University of California, Los Angeles, 4Perkin Elmer

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58056


 JoVE In-Press

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