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Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS

JoVE 55762


 Biochemistry

Deep Proteome Profiling by Isobaric Labeling, Extensive Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, and Software-Assisted Quantification

1Departments of Structural Biology and Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 2St. Jude Proteomics Facility, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 3Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56474


 JoVE In-Press

Quantitative Mass Spectrometric Profiling of Cancer-cell Proteomes Derived From Liquid and Solid Tumors

1Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center, Göttingen, 2Department of Hematology/Oncology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, 3Bioanalytical Mass Spectrometry Group, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 4Bioanalytics, Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center, Göttingen, 5German Cancer Consortium, 6German Cancer Research Center

JoVE 52435


 Medicine

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dorsal Skin of Hamsters: a Useful Model for the Screening of Antileishmanial Drugs

1Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases -PECET-School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, 2School of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia

JoVE 3533


 Immunology and Infection

High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning

1Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology (LIN), 2Institute of Experimental Internal Medicine, Medical School, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, 3Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical School, Otto von Guericke University

JoVE 54992


 Neuroscience

Using X-ray Crystallography, Biophysics, and Functional Assays to Determine the Mechanisms Governing T-cell Receptor Recognition of Cancer Antigens

1Division of Infection and Immunity and Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University, 2Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), 3Ludwig Insitutue for Cancer Research, Lausanne Branch, University of Lausanne

JoVE 54991


 Immunology and Infection

Heterotopic Renal Autotransplantation in a Porcine Model: A Step-by-Step Protocol

1Multi Organ Transplant Program, Department of Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 3Programa de Doctorat en Medicina, La Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 4Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto General Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, 6Departments of Surgery (Urology) & Physiology, Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children

JoVE 53765


 Medicine

Operating Procedures of the Electrochemotherapy for Treatment of Tumor in Dogs and Cats

1Clinic for Surgery and Small Animals, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, 2Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, 4IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), CNRS, 5IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), Université de Toulouse

JoVE 54760


 Cancer Research

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Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol

1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University

JoVE 54227


 Bioengineering

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Removal of Branched and Cyclic Compounds by Urea Adduction for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE 10160

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

As mentioned in previous videos, the product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. In the case of our two organic paleothermometers (Uk'37 and MBT/CBT), the interest is in only 6 compounds (2 alkenones and 4 isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). As discussed in the previous two videos in this series, purification techniques may be applied in order to pare down the number of compounds in an analyzed sample. These techniques may chemically alter the unwanted components (saponification), take advantage of the different compound chemistries (column chromatography), or use the different shapes and sizes of the molecules to include or exclude certain components from the analysis (urea adduction). The atomic structure of different chemicals leads some organic compounds to form long, narrow, straight chains (n-alkanes and alkenones), other organic compounds to form complex cyclic structures, others to form highly-branched structures, and yet others which form both cyclic and branched structures (GDGTs) (Figure 1). The different


 Essentials of Earth Science

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Hyperpolarized 13C Metabolic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging

1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, 3GE Global Research, 4Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik der Technischen Universität München (IMETUM), Technische Universität München, 5Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 6IDG Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München

JoVE 54751


 Cancer Research

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From Constructs to Crystals – Towards Structure Determination of β-barrel Outer Membrane Proteins

1Department of Biological Sciences, Markey Center for Structural Biology, Purdue University, 2National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, 3National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health

JoVE 53245


 Chemistry

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Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot Blot Assays

1Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health canada, 2National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, The State Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, 5National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada

JoVE 2784


 Immunology and Infection

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Consensus Brain-derived Protein, Extraction Protocol for the Study of Human and Murine Brain Proteome Using Both 2D-DIGE and Mini 2DE Immunoblotting

1Team Alzheimer & Tauopathies, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Centre, Inserm UMR 837, 2EA 4308-Department of Reproductive Biology-Spermiology-CECOS, CHRU-Lille, 3EA2686-Laboratorie d'Immunologie, Faculté de Médecine - Pôle Recherche, 4Department of Neurology, CHRU-Lille

JoVE 51339


 Neuroscience

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