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Confined Spaces: A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as Caves, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri

JoVE 52319


 Medicine

Reflection and Refraction

JoVE 10409

Source: Derek Wilson, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

Light travels at different speeds depending on the material through which it is propagating. When light travels from one material to another, it will either slow down or speed up. In order to conserve energy and momentum, the light must change the direction in which it propagates. This bending of light is known as refraction. Some fraction of the light is also reflected at the interface between the two materials. In special cases, a light beam can be refracted so sharply at an interface that it is actually completely reflected back into the medium from which it was coming. Lenses make use of the principle of refraction. Lenses come in two varieties with different curvatures: convex lenses and concave lenses. Convex lenses are often used to focus light but can also be used to create magnified images of objects. When a convex lens causes the light rays coming from an object to diverge, the human eye judges the light to be coming from some point behind the actual object from which the light is originating. The image of the object will in this case be magnified. This type of image is called a virtual image. Concave


 Physics II

Anxiety Testing

JoVE 5430

Anxiety is a commonly observed behavioral disorder that stems from fear. It is described as increased restlessness, or unpleasant feelings of fear over anticipated events. Experimenters often use rodent models to better understand anxiety disorders in humans. They use different paradigms, like exposing rodents to bright spaces or loud sounds, which are known to induce fear. These tests combined with other interventions such as surgery or drug-administration may assist researchers in pinpointing the neurobiological basis of anxiety disorders. This video begins by providing common principles behind variety of anxiety tests. Then, two specific protocols, the Successive Alleys Test and the Hyponeophagia Test are discussed in detail.  Lastly, variations of anxiety testing in rodents and humans will be explored.


 Behavioral Science

Imaging the Root Hair Morphology of Arabidopsis Seedlings in a Two-layer Microfluidic Platform

1Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, University of Tennessee, 2Bioscience Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge national Laboratory, 3Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, 4Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee

JoVE 55971


 Bioengineering

An Analytical Tool that Quantifies Cellular Morphology Changes from Three-dimensional Fluorescence Images

1Medications Development, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 2Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, 3Translational Research Institute and the Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

JoVE 4233


 Biology

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Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion (PHP) with Melphalan as a Treatment for Unresectable Metastases Confined to the Liver

1Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 4Department of Extracorporeal Circulation, Leiden University Medical Centre, 5Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 6Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute

JoVE 53795


 Medicine

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Lesion Explorer: A Video-guided, Standardized Protocol for Accurate and Reliable MRI-derived Volumetrics in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Elderly

1LC Campbell Cognitive Neurology Research Unit, Heart & Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, Brain Sciences Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Medicine (Neurology), Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto

JoVE 50887


 Medicine

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Long-term High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy in the Lung with a Vacuum Stabilized Imaging Window

1Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology and Woman’s Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 3Department of Anatomy & Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 4Gruss-Lipper Biophotonics Center Integrated Imaging Program, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 5Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 54603


 Cancer Research

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Optical Frequency Domain Imaging of Ex vivo Pulmonary Resection Specimens: Obtaining One to One Image to Histopathology Correlation

1Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 2Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 3855


 Bioengineering

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Mental Rotation

JoVE 10115

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Visual mental imagery refers to the ability to conjure images in one’s mind’s eye. This allows people to process visual material above and beyond the constraints of a current point-of-view; for example, a person could imagine, using their mind’s eye, how something might look in a different color, or what it would look like if it were made from a different material or rotated and seen from a different perspective. Mental imagery seems to support important human behaviors in many contexts. For example, people report visualizing routes and maps when planning a route or giving directions. They report visualizing movements, such as swinging a bat, to prepare for an actual action. They also report the mental rotation of objects in order to consider how an object might fit into a receptacle or clear a barrier. This video demonstrates how to use the mental rotation procedure in order to investigate visual mental imagery.


 Cognitive Psychology

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Removal of Branched and Cyclic Compounds by Urea Adduction for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE 10160

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

As mentioned in previous videos, the product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. In the case of our two organic paleothermometers (Uk'37 and MBT/CBT), the interest is in only 6 compounds (2 alkenones and 4 isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). As discussed in the previous two videos in this series, purification techniques may be applied in order to pare down the number of compounds in an analyzed sample. These techniques may chemically alter the unwanted components (saponification), take advantage of the different compound chemistries (column chromatography), or use the different shapes and sizes of the molecules to include or exclude certain components from the analysis (urea adduction). The atomic structure of different chemicals leads some organic compounds to form long, narrow, straight chains (n-alkanes and alkenones), other organic compounds to form complex cyclic structures, others to form highly-branched structures, and yet others which form both cyclic and branched structures (GDGTs) (Figure 1). The different


 Earth Science

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