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Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53962


 Behavior

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine

JoVE 3188


 Medicine

Nonconscious Mimicry Occurs when Affiliation Goals are Present

JoVE 10335

Source: Diego Reinero & Jay Van Bavel—New York University

People are social chameleons and regularly engage in nonconscious behavioral mimicry. This occurs when an individual unwittingly imitates the behaviors of another person, such as crossing one's legs moments after a person sitting adjacent does so, or adjusting one's body posture to match a conversation partner. Rapport between two people increases behavioral mimicry, just as mimicry also increases rapport. Psychologists have posited that this mimicry is attributed to a perception-behavior link;1 seeing a person engage in a behavior activates that behavioral representation, which then makes the perceiver more likely to engage in that behavior him- or herself. The following experiment expands on these previous findings by testing whether people, without intention or awareness, use mimicry to their advantage. Because goals activate behavioral strategies and plans of action that help people pursue those goals,2 Lakin and Chartrand hypothesized that individuals would mimic another person more when they have a goal to affiliate than when they do not.3


 Essentials of Social Psychology

Studying Food Reward and Motivation in Humans

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, 2Metabolic Research Laboratories, Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, 3Cambridgeshire & Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, University of Cambridge, 4West Anglia Comprehensive Local Research Network, Addenbrooke's Hospital

JoVE 51281


 Behavior

Object Substitution Masking

JoVE 10279

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Visual masking is a term used by perceptual scientists to refer to a wide range of phenomena in which in an image is presented but not perceived by an observer because of the presentation of a second image. There are several different kinds of masking, many of them relatively intuitive and unsurprising. But one surprising and important type of masking is called Object Substitution Masking. It has been a focus of research in vision science since it was discovered, relatively recently, around 1997 by Enns and Di Lollo.1 This video will demonstrate standard procedures for how to conduct an object substitution experiment, how to analyze the results, and it will also explain the hypothesized causes for this unusual form of masking.


 Essentials of Sensation and Perception

Compound Administration III

JoVE 10215

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections. Specialized training is essential for these procedures to be performed successfully. Justification for these routes may need to be provided to gain Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval.


 Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Binocular Rivalry

JoVE 10065

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

Why do people have two forward-facing eyes? By presenting the brain with two ever so slightly different images it becomes possible to comprehend visual problems that are far more difficult to process through a single eye. Chief among these is the problem of 3-D perception, seeing the world in three dimensions, despite retinal inputs in only two dimensions. What happens if each eye receives two completely different images? That does not happen in nature, to be sure, but it can be contrived in the laboratory in a set-up called binocular rivalry. Binocular rivalry is a common laboratory paradigm for investigating the ways that the brain integrates information from two eyes, and in recent years, the mechanisms responsible for producing conscious experience.


 Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) for Research; Obtaining Adequate Sample Yield

1Biomedical Research Centre in Microbial Diseases, National Institute for Health Research, 2Respiratory Infection Group, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital Trust, 3Respiratory Infection Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 4Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, 5Comprehensive Local Research Network, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital Trust, 6Department of Respiratory Research, University Hospital Aintree

JoVE 4345


 Medicine

The Use of Cystometry in Small Rodents: A Study of Bladder Chemosensation

1Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Belgium, 2Laboratory for Ion Channel Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Belgium, 3TRP Research Platform Leuven (TRPLe), KU Leuven, Belgium

JoVE 3869


 Medicine

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061


 Behavior

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216


 Neuroscience

Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida

JoVE 50336


 Behavior

Compound Administration II

JoVE 10388

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Compound administration is often an integral component of an animal study. Many factors need to be evaluated to ensure that the compound is delivered correctly. The route of administration affects the mechanisms of absorption. The characteristics of the substance to be introduced (the pH, viscosity, and concentration) may dictate which route of administration is selected.1,2,3


 Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Finding Your Blind Spot and Perceptual Filling-in

JoVE 10195

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

In the back of everyone's eye is a small piece of neural tissue called the retina. The retina has photosensitive cells that respond to stimulation by light. The responses of these cells are sent into the brain through the optic nerve, a bundle of neural fibers. In each retina there is a place somewhere in the periphery where the outputs from retinal cells collect and the bundled optic nerve exits to the brain. At that location, there is no photosensitivity-whatever light reflects from the world and lands in that position does not produce a signal in the brain. As a result, humans have a blind spot, a place in the visual field for which they don't process incoming stimuli. However, people are not aware that they have blind spots; there is not an empty hole in the visual images in front of the eyes. So what do people see in their blind spots? The brain actually fills-in missing input based on the surroundings. This video demonstrates how to find a person's blind spot, and how to investigate the mechanisms of perceptual filling-in.


 Essentials of Sensation and Perception

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf

JoVE 53466


 Behavior

The Factorial Experiment

JoVE 10058

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A factorial design is a common type of experiment where there are two or more independent variables. This video demonstrates a 2 x 2 factorial design used to explore how self-awareness and self-esteem may influence the ability to decipher nonverbal signals. This video leads students through the basics of a factorial design including, the nature of a factorial design and what distinguishes it from other designs, the benefits of factorial design, the importance and nature of interactions, main effect and interaction hypotheses, and how to conduct a factorial experiment.


 Essentials of Experimental Psychology

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London

JoVE 52773


 Neuroscience

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