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Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the Ovum in the Graafian follicle. At Ovulation they are extruded with Ovum.

Fertilization

JoVE 10907

During fertilization, an egg and sperm cell fuse to create a new diploid structure. In humans, the process occurs once the egg has been released from the ovary, and travels into the fallopian tubes. The process requires several key steps: 1) sperm present in the genital tract must locate the egg; 2) once there, sperm need to release enzymes to help them burrow through the protective zona pellucida of the egg; and 3) the membranes of a single sperm cell and egg must fuse, with the sperm releasing its contents—including its nucleus and centrosome—into the egg’s cytoplasm. If these steps are successful, the genetic material of the male and female gametes combine, and mitotic cell division commences, giving rise to a diploid embryo. The binding of the sperm and egg cell brings about various changes, among them the production of waves of calcium ions (Ca2+) pulsing through the egg cell. Such oscillations are initiated by sperm-egg fusion and result from both the release and uptake of endogenous Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum of an egg cell and the simultaneous discharge and intake of such ions from the egg’s extracellular environment. Importantly, calcium signaling modifies the egg by causing vesicles, called cortical granules, that lay directly below its plasma membrane to release their contents into the open space bene

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Co-transplantation of Human Ovarian Tissue with Engineered Endothelial Cells: A Cell-based Strategy Combining Accelerated Perfusion with Direct Paracrine Delivery

1Center for Reproductive Medicine and Infertility, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Angiocrine Biosciences, Inc., 3Tri-Institutional Stem Cell Derivation Laboratory, Weill Cornell Medical College, 4Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College

JoVE 57472

 Bioengineering

A Method for Ovarian Follicle Encapsulation and Culture in a Proteolytically Degradable 3 Dimensional System

1Institute for BioNanotechnology in Advanced Medicine, Northwestern University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 3Center for Reproductive Research, Northwestern University, 4The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, 5Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University

JoVE 2695

 Bioengineering

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Spermatozoa: Collection, Cryopreservation, and Heterologous In Vitro Fertilization

1Department of Animal Reproduction, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), 2Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum, 4Mundomar, Benidorm, 5Veterinary Services, L'Oceanográfic, Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Junta de Murs i Vals, s/n, 46013

JoVE 55237

 Developmental Biology

Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs

1Neurobiology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2Comparative Medicine Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 3Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 4Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

JoVE 58327

 Biology

Combinational Treatment of Trichostatin A and Vitamin C Improves the Efficiency of Cloning Mice by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

1Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, 2Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, 3Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, 4Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, 5Institute of Advanced Technology, Kindai University

JoVE 57036

 Developmental Biology

Production of Genetically Engineered Golden Syrian Hamsters by Pronuclear Injection of the CRISPR/Cas9 Complex

1Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, 2National Centre for International Research in Cell and Gene Therapy, Sino-British Research Centre, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 3Department of Animal Science Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University, 4Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, 5Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London

JoVE 56263

 Bioengineering

Analysis of Chromosome Segregation, Histone Acetylation, and Spindle Morphology in Horse Oocytes

1Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, University of Milan, 2IRCCS. Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, 3PRC, CNRS, IFCE, Université de Tours, INRA, 4PAO, INRA, 5Clinique des Animaux de Compagnie et des Équidés, Université de Liège, 6University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

JoVE 55242

 Developmental Biology

A Neural Network-Based Identification of Developmentally Competent or Incompetent Mouse Fully-Grown Oocytes

1Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo, Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "Lazzaro Spallanzani", University of Pavia, 2Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 3Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California San Diego, 4Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione, University of Pavia

JoVE 56668

 Developmental Biology

Loss- and Gain-of-function Approach to Investigate Early Cell Fate Determinants in Preimplantation Mouse Embryos

1Department of Nanobiomedical Sciences and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, 2Insititute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, 3Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, 4Department of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, 5Department of Animal Biotechnology, Sahmyook University

JoVE 53696

 Developmental Biology

Inactivation of mTor: A Tool to Investigate Meiotic Progression and Translational Control During Bovine Oocyte Maturation

1BVN Neustadt/Aisch, 2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, 3Reproductive Cell Biology Unit, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, 4Reproductive Biochemistry Unit, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology

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JoVE 53689

 JoVE In-Press
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