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Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

Natural Selection - Student Protocol

JoVE 10593

Simulating Natural Selection
To begin, cut the white, black, and gray pipe cleaners into quarters, which should produce a total of 100 pieces that are 3 inches long.
Then, cut the green pipe cleaners in the quantities and lengths specified in the video, taking care to minimize waste. This approximates a normal distribution of lengths and should…

 Lab Bio

Optimal Foraging - Student Protocol

JoVE 10614

Simulating Foraging with Artificial Habitats and Prey
NOTE: The foragers will hunt for prey represented by pinto beans in four buckets of rice with varying prey densities. Without knowing what these densities are, foragers must obtain as many prey items as possible in as little time as possible.
HYPOTHESES: In this experiment, the experimental…

 Lab Bio

Scientific Method - Student Protocol

JoVE 10553

Observation and Background Research
NOTE: The first two steps in the scientific process involve studying and observing natural phenomena of interest.
Observe the leaves and branches of the individual plant species. Each species comes from a different environment.
Compare each branch to one another and record your observations about any…

 Lab Bio

Optimal Foraging - Prep Student

JoVE 10644

Setting up the Foraging Habitat Patches
Print a student data collection sheet for each student to record data. NOTE: Students will work in groups of three for this activity. For any given round, one student will forage, one student will record data and another student will run the stopwatch.
Choose a location for the foraging activity to take…

 Lab Bio

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of…

 Lab Animal Research

Using GIS to Investigate Urban Forestry

JoVE 10075

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University


Urban forests broadly include urban parks, street trees, landscaped boulevards, public gardens, river and coastal promenades, greenways, river corridors, wetlands, nature preserves, natural areas, shelterbelts of trees, and working trees at industrial brownfield …

 Environmental Science

Scientific Method- Concept

JoVE 10552

The scientific method is used to solve problems and explain phenomena. The development of the scientific method coincided with changes in philosophy underpinning scientific discovery, radically transforming the views of society about nature. During the European Renaissance, individuals such as Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton formalized the concept of the scientific method and put it…

 Lab Bio

Pressure Transducer: Calibration Using a Pitot-static Tube

JoVE 10467

Source: Shreyas Narsipur, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC


Fluid pressure is an important flow characteristic that is required to determine the aerodynamics of a system. One of the oldest and still existing pressure measurement systems is the manometer due to its accuracy…

 Aeronautical Engineering

Rodent Identification II

JoVE 10182

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Animal records must be accurately maintained to ensure that data collection is correct. Records range from maintaining information on cage cards to having a detailed database with all of the relevant information on each animal. The primary …

 Lab Animal Research

Rodent Identification I

JoVE 10189

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


A fundamental requirement of biomedical research is the proper identification of research animals. It is essential that the right animal is utilized for procedures and data collection. Laboratory mice and rats can be identified with the…

 Lab Animal Research

Single Crystal and Powder X-ray Diffraction

JoVE 10462

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


X-ray crystallography is a technique that uses X-rays to study the structure of molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments are routinely carried out with either single-crystal or powdered samples.


Single-crystal…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Multicopter Aerodynamics: Characterizing Thrust on a Hexacopter

JoVE 10469

Source: Prashin Sharma and Ella M. Atkins, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI


Multicopters are becoming popular for a variety of hobby and commercial applications. They are commonly available as quadcopter (four thrusters), hexacopter (six thrusters), and octocopter (eight thrusters) …

 Aeronautical Engineering

Decoding Auditory Imagery with Multivoxel Pattern Analysis

JoVE 10267

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Imagine the sound of a bell ringing. What is happening in the brain when we conjure up a sound like this in the "mind's ear?" There is growing evidence that the brain uses the same mechanisms for imagination that it uses for perception.1 For …

 Neuropsychology

Investigation Ohm's Law for Ohmic and Nonohmic Conductors

JoVE 10116

Source: Andrew Duffy, PhD, Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA


This experiment investigates Ohm's law, which relates current, voltage, and resistance.


One goal of the experiment is to become familiar with circuit diagrams and the terminology involved in basic circuits, such as resistor,…

 Physics II

Event-related Potentials and the Oddball Task

JoVE 10273

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Given the overwhelming amount of information captured by the sensory organs, it is crucial that the brain is able to prioritize the processing of certain stimuli, to spend less effort on what might not be currently important and to attend to …

 Neuropsychology

High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Aorta

JoVE 10397

Source: Amelia R. Adelsperger, Evan H. Phillips, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


High-frequency ultrasound systems are used to acquire high resolution images. Here, the use of a state-of-the-art system will be demonstrated to image the morphology and …

 Biomedical Engineering

Freezing-Point Depression to Determine an Unknown Compound

JoVE 10137

Source: Laboratory of Lynne O' Connell — Boston College


When a solid compound is dissolved in a solvent, the freezing point of the resulting solution is lower than that of the pure solvent. This phenomenon is known as freezing-point depression, and the change in temperature is directly related to the molecular weight of the…

 General Chemistry

Language: The N400 in Semantic Incongruity

JoVE 10275

Source: Laboratories of Sarah I. Gimbel and Jonas T. Kaplan— University of Southern California


Understanding language is one of the most complex cognitive tasks that humans are capable of. Given the incredible amount of possible choices when combining individual words to form meaning in sentences, it is crucial that the brain is able …

 Neuropsychology

Entropy

JoVE 10343

Source: Ketron Mitchell-Wynne, PhD, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA


The second law of thermodynamics is a fundamental law of nature. It states that the entropy of a system always increases over time or remains constant in ideal cases when a…

 Physics I

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

JoVE 10156

Source: Dr. Paul Bower - Purdue University


High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an important analytical method commonly used to separate and quantify components of liquid samples. In this technique, a solution (first phase) is pumped through a column that contains a packing of small porous particles with a second phase bound to …

 Analytical Chemistry

Newton's Laws of Motion

JoVE 10038

Source: Andrew Duffy, PhD, Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA


This experiment examines at various situations involving two interacting objects.


First, the experiment examines the forces that two objects apply to one another while they collide. The objects are wheeled carts that have…

 Physics I

The Split Brain

JoVE 10162

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


The study of how damage to the brain affects cognitive functioning has historically been one of the most important tools for cognitive neuroscience. While the brain is one of the most well protected parts of the body, there are many events…

 Neuropsychology

Motor Maps

JoVE 10175

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


One principle of brain organization is the topographic mapping of information. Especially in sensory and motor cortices, adjacent regions of the brain tend to represent information from adjacent parts of the body, resulting in maps of the…

 Neuropsychology

Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Traumatic Brain Injury

JoVE 10276

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Traditional brain imaging techniques using MRI are very good at visualizing the gross structures of the brain. A structural brain image made with MRI provides high contrast of the borders between gray and white matter, and information about…

 Neuropsychology

Learning and Memory: The Remember-Know Task

JoVE 10212

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Our experience of memory is varied and complex. Sometimes we remember events in vivid detail, while other times we may only have a vague sense of familiarity. Memory researchers have made a distinction between memories that are recollected…

 Neuropsychology

Mössbauer Spectroscopy

JoVE 10448

Source: Joshua Wofford, Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


Mössbauer spectroscopy is a bulk characterization technique that examines the nuclear excitation of an atom by gamma rays in the solid state. The resulting Mössbauer spectrum provides information about the oxidation state, spin…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Electric Charge in a Magnetic Field

JoVE 10133

Source: Andrew Duffy, PhD, Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA


This experiment duplicates J.J. Thomson's famous experiment at the end of the 19th century, in which he measured the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron. In combination with Robert A. Millikan's oil-drop experiment a few years later that produced a value for…

 Physics II

Visual Attention: fMRI Investigation of Object-based Attentional Control

JoVE 10272

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel— University of Southern California


The human visual system is incredibly sophisticated and capable of processing large amounts of information very quickly. However, the brain's capacity to process information is not an unlimited resource. Attention, the ability to…

 Neuropsychology

Habituation: Studying Infants Before They Can Talk

JoVE 10068

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles, Judith Danovitch, and Cara Cashon—University of Louisville


Infants are one of the purest sources of information about human thinking and learning, because they’ve had very few life experiences. Thus, researchers are interested in gathering data from infants, but as participants in…

 Developmental Psychology

The Evans Method

JoVE 10304

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


While most organic molecules are diamagnetic, wherein all their electrons are paired up in bonds, many transition metal complexes are paramagnetic, which has ground states with unpaired electrons. Recall Hund's rule, which states that for orbitals of…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Efficiency of Liquid-liquid Extraction

JoVE 10426

Source: Kerry M. Dooley and Michael G. Benton, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is a separation technique used instead of distillation when either: (a) the relative volatilities of the compounds to be separated are very similar; (b) one or more of the mixture…

 Chemical Engineering

Persuasion: Motivational Factors Influencing Attitude Change

JoVE 10330

Source: William Brady & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Decades of social psychological research sought to understand a fundamental question that pervades our social life including politics, marketing and public health; namely, how are people persuaded to change their attitudes towards an idea, person, or object? Traditional…

 Social Psychology

Marginal Dishonesty: The Adding-to-10 Task

JoVE 10307

Source: Julian Wills & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Classical economic theory asserts that people are rational and self-interested. In addition to seeking wealth and status, people are motivated by other goals. As a result, financial motives can sometimes be dwarfed by other internal needs, such as maintaining a positive…

 Social Psychology

Measuring Tropospheric Ozone

JoVE 10024

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University


Ozone is a form of elemental oxygen (O3), a molecule of three oxygen atoms bonded in a structure that is highly reactive as an oxidizing agent. Ozone occurs in both the stratosphere and the troposphere levels of the atmosphere. When in the stratosphere (located…

 Environmental Science

Memory Development: Demonstrating How Repeated Questioning Leads to False Memories

JoVE 10129

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville


A person is defined as a unique individual based on the people and events they encounter in their lives. Thus, creating, storing, and recalling memories are essential elements of the human experience. However, memory, as adults experience it, takes…

 Developmental Psychology

The Implicit Association Test

JoVE 10368

Source: Julian Wills & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


One of the core constructs in social psychology is the notion of an attitude toward an object or person. Traditionally, psychologists measured attitudes by simply asking people to self-report their beliefs, opinions, or feelings. This approach has limitations, however, when …

 Social Psychology

Crowding

JoVE 10280

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University


Human vision depends on light-sensitive neurons that are arranged in the back of the eye on a tissue called the retina. The neurons, called the rods and cones because of their shapes, are not uniformly distributed on the retina. Instead, there is a region in the center…

 Sensation and Perception

Evaluating the Accuracy of Snap Judgments

JoVE 10309

Source: Diego Reinero & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Social psychologists have long been interested in the way people form impressions of others. Much of this work has focused on the errors people make in judging others, such as the exaggerated influence of central traits (such as "warm" and "cold"), the…

 Social Psychology

Are You Smart or Hardworking? How Praise Influences Children's Motivation

JoVE 10112

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville


Imagine teaching two children how to skate. It is a hard task for both of them, and they fall down frequently. After falling down for the first time, one child says that skating is too hard and wants to go home. The other child seems to enjoy the…

 Developmental Psychology

Children's Reliance on Artist Intentions When Identifying Pictures

JoVE 10117

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville


Children are not the best artists. Sometimes it’s easy to pick out the characteristic triangular head, whiskers, and tail of a cat, but children often describe elaborate scenarios that they depict as a beautifully unrecognizable mess. Thus,…

 Developmental Psychology

Ostracism: Effects of Being Ignored Over the Internet

JoVE 10336

Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Social ostracism is defined as being ignored and excluded in the presence of others. This experience is a pervasive and powerful social phenomenon, observed in both animals and humans, throughout all stages of human development, and across all manner of dyadic…

 Social Psychology

Effects of Thinking Abstractly or Concretely on Self-control

JoVE 10332

Source: Diego Reinero & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Whether it's refraining from having a second serving of ice cream, studying instead of attending a fun party, or deciding to put money away in a savings account, sacrificing short-term outcomes in favor of long-term outcomes (i.e., delaying gratification) is a…

 Social Psychology

A Minority of One: Conformity to Group Norms

JoVE 10331

Source: William Brady & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


It is obvious that we are influenced by those around us, but in the early to mid 1900's, psychologists began to study how potent social influence can be on our thoughts and behaviors. Motivated in part by attempts to explain the behaviors of Nazi soldiers in World War II,…

 Social Psychology

Creating the Minimal Group Paradigm

JoVE 10310

Source: Julian Wills & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


The study of intergroup relations, such as prejudice, conflict, and discrimination, has always been a central topic in social psychology. Does discrimination stem from competition with other groups, a history of conflict, or derogatory stereotypes? Despite an abundance of…

 Social Psychology

Inducing Emotions

JoVE 10308

Source: William Brady & Jay Van Bavel—New York University


Psychologists have long known that people behave differently in good moods versus bad moods, and this general principle extends to consumer behavior. Economists, as well, have come to appreciate that an individual’s financial decisions are not solely the result of…

 Social Psychology

Executive Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

JoVE 10268

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Attention, working-memory, planning, impulse control, inhibition, and mental flexibility are important components of human cognition that are often referred to as executive functions. Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that …

 Neuropsychology

Decision-making and the Iowa Gambling Task

JoVE 10208

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Decision-making is an important component of human executive function, in which a choice about a course of action or cognition is made from many possibilities. Damage to the inferior parts of the frontal lobes can affect a person's ability…

 Neuropsychology
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