Source: Sharon Bord, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA
When monitoring patients, it is important to obtain values that are accurate and reliable. Blood pressure monitoring is one of the essential vital signs, and for a majority of patients, measuring it utilizing non-invasive techniques provides accurate values. However, there are situations in which the blood pressure requires more exact, specific, and reliable measurements. This can be achieved by intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring and requires arterial line placement. Arterial line placement refers to the insertion of a catheter, which is able to transduce blood pressure, into one of the major arteries (e.g., radial or femoral artery). Patients who potentially need arterial line placement include those with extreme low (such as in sepsis or cardiogenic shock) or high (as in cerebrovascular accident or hypertensive emergency) blood pressure measurements. Many of these patients are placed on vasoactive medications to either increase or decrease blood pressure. When the goal is to decrease a patient's blood pressure, it must be done gradually, which further necessitates close blood pressure monitoring. Arterial line placement is also ideal for patients who require frequent arterial blood gas moni…
Emergency Medicine and Critical Care
Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Central venous access is necessary in a multitude of clinical situations, including vascular access, vasopressor and caustic medication delivery, central venous pressure monitoring, volume resuscitation, total parental nutrition, hemodialysis, and frequent phlebotomy. There are three veins in the body that are accessed for central venous cannulation: the internal jugular, the subclavian, and the femoral. Each of these vessels has distinct advantages and disadvantages with unique anatomical considerations.
Femoral vein cannulation can be easily performed both under ultrasound guidance and using the surface landmarks; therefore, femoral access is often used when emergent placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) is needed (such as in the case of medical codes and trauma resuscitations). In addition, cannulation of the femoral artery allows one to simultaneously perform other procedures needed for stabilization, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and intubation.
Successful placement of a femoral CVC requires working understanding of the target anatomy, access to with procedural ultrasound, and fluidity in the Seldinger technique.
Emergency Medicine and Critical Care
Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a common condition affecting older adults and includes disease of the peripheral arteries and veins. While the history and physical exam offer clues to its diagnosis, Doppler ultrasound has become a routine part of the bedside vascular examination. The video titled "The Peripheral Vascular Exam" gave a detailed review of the physical examination of the peripheral arterial and venous systems. This video specifically reviews the bedside assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic venous insufficiency using a handheld continuous wave Doppler.
The handheld Doppler (HHD) is a simple instrument that utilizes continuous transmission and reception of ultrasound (also referred to as continuous wave Doppler) to detect changes in blood velocity as it courses through a vessel. The Doppler probe contains a transmitting element that emits ultrasound and a receiving element that detects ultrasound waves (Figure 1). The emitted ultrasound is reflected off of moving blood and back to the probe at a frequency directly related to the velocity of blood flow. The reflected signal is detected and transduced to an audible sound with a frequen…
Physical Examinations I
Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA
Gastrointestinal disease accounts for millions of office visits and hospital admissions annually. Physical examination of the abdomen is a crucial tool in diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; in addition, it can help identify pathological processes in cardiovascular, urinary, and other systems. As physical examination in general, the examination of the abdominal region is important for establishing physician-patient contact, for reaching the preliminary diagnosis and selecting subsequent laboratory and imaging tests, and determining the urgency of care.
As with the other parts of a physical examination, visual inspection and auscultation of the abdomen are done in a systematic fashion so that no potential findings are missed. Special attention should be paid to potential problems already identified by the patient's history. Here we assume that the patient has already been identified, and has had history taken, symptoms discussed, and areas of potential concern identified. In this video we will not review the patient's history; instead, we will go directly to the physical examination.
Before we get to the examination, let's briefly review s…
Physical Examinations II
Source: Jaideep S. Talwalkar, MD, and Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
In order to optimize the predictive value of the physical examination, the provider must perform maneuvers correctly. The proper use of drapes is an important component of correctly performing physical examination maneuvers. Skin lesions are missed when "inspection" occurs through clothing, crackles are erroneously reported when the lungs are examined through a t-shirt, and subtle findings on the heart exam go undetected when auscultation is performed over clothing. Accordingly, the best practice standards call for examining with one's hands or equipment in direct contact with the patient's skin (i.e., do not examine through a gown, drape, or clothing). In addition to its clinical value, the correct draping technique is important for improving the patient's comfort level during the encounter.
Like all other aspects of the physical exam, it takes deliberate thought and practice to find the right balance between draping, which is done to preserve patient modesty, and exposure, which is necessary to optimize access to the parts that need examination. Individual provider styles in the use of gowns and drapes vary consider…
Physical Examinations I
Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA
The lymphatic system has two main functions: to return extracellular fluid back to the venous circulation and to expose antigenic substances to the immune system. As the collected fluid passes through lymphatic channels on its way back to the systemic circulation, it encounters multiple nodes consisting of highly concentrated clusters of lymphocytes. Most lymph channels and nodes reside deep within the body and, therefore, are not accessible to physical exam (Figure 1). Only nodes near the surface can be inspected or palpated. Lymph nodes are normally invisible, and smaller nodes are also non-palpable. However, larger nodes (>1 cm) in the neck, axillae, and inguinal areas are often detectable as soft, smooth, movable, non-tender, bean-shaped masses imbedded in subcutaneous tissue.
Lymphadenopathy usually indicates an infection or, less commonly, a cancer in the area of lymph drainage. Nodes may become enlarged, fixed, firm, and/or tender depending on the pathology present. For example, a soft, tender lymph node palpable near the angle of the mandible may indicate an infected tonsil, whereas a firm, enlarged, non-tender lymph …
Physical Examinations II
Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN
It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.…
Lab Animal Research
1Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research, RWTH Aachen University, 2Human Genetic Laboratory, University of Medicine and Pharmacy