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Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.

SNARE-mediated Fusion of Single Proteoliposomes with Tethered Supported Bilayers in a Microfluidic Flow Cell Monitored by Polarized TIRF Microscopy

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Nanobiology Institute, Yale University, 3Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 4Laboratoire de Neurophotonique, Université Paris Descartes, Faculté des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

JoVE 54349


 Neuroscience

Imaging FITC-dextran as a Reporter for Regulated Exocytosis

1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 2Department of Pathology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 3Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, 4Departments of Pathology and of Microbiology and Immunology and Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, School of Medicine, Stanford University

JoVE 57936


 Biology

Combinational Treatment of Trichostatin A and Vitamin C Improves the Efficiency of Cloning Mice by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

1Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, 2Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, 3Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute and Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, 4Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, 5Institute of Advanced Technology, Kindai University

JoVE 57036


 Developmental Biology

Early Viral Entry Assays for the Identification and Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds

1Department of Chinese Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 5Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 6Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53124


 Immunology and Infection

Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot Blot Assays

1Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health canada, 2National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, The State Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, 5National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada

JoVE 2784


 Immunology and Infection

Investigating Mast Cell Secretory Granules; from Biosynthesis to Exocytosis

1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 2Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University

JoVE 52505


 Immunology and Infection

Initial Evaluation of Antibody-conjugates Modified with Viral-derived Peptides for Increasing Cellular Accumulation and Improving Tumor Targeting

1Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 2Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Center (CIMS), Université de Sherbrooke, 3Sherbrooke Institute of Pharmacology

JoVE 55440


 Bioengineering

Quantitative Analysis of Autophagy using Advanced 3D Fluorescence Microscopy

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, 2NSF Center for Biophotonics Science & Technology, University of California, Davis, 3University of Tromsø, 4Department of Surgery (Division of Surgical Oncology), University of California, Davis, 5UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, 6Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Davis

JoVE 50047


 Biology

Ex Vivo Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of Biomacromolecular Drugs

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science & Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 3Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Vanderbilt University, 4Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 5Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 50166


 Immunology and Infection

A High Content Imaging Assay for Identification of Botulinum Neurotoxin Inhibitors

1Perkin Elmer Inc., 2Henry M. Jackson Foundation, 3The Geneva Foundation, 4ORISE, 5Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, 6Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 7DoD Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute (BHSAI), Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC)

JoVE 51915


 Neuroscience

Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism) by Sequence Analysis using a Genotypic Approach

1Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, 2Max Planck Institute for Informatics, 3Institute for Immune genetics, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, University of Duesseldorf, 5Department of Dermatology, University of Essen, 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, 7Augustinerinnen Hospital

JoVE 3264


 Immunology and Infection

Assessment of the Synaptic Interface of Primary Human T Cells from Peripheral Blood and Lymphoid Tissue

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, 2Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 4Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University

JoVE 58143


 Immunology and Infection

Measurement of In Vitro Integration Activity of HIV-1 Preintegration Complexes

1Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Meharry Medical College, 2Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Meharry Medical College, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Meharry Medical College, 5Tennessee Center for AIDS Research (TN-CFAR), Meharry Medical College

JoVE 54581


 Immunology and Infection

Using Zebrafish Models of Human Influenza A Virus Infections to Screen Antiviral Drugs and Characterize Host Immune Cell Responses

1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, University of Maine, 3School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, 4Division of Intramural Research, Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 5Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine

JoVE 55235


 Immunology and Infection

Neuronal Transfection Methods

JoVE 5215

Transfection - the process of transferring genetic material into cells - is a powerful tool for the rapid and efficient manipulation of gene expression in cells. Because this method can be used to silence the expression of specific proteins or to drive the expression of foreign or modified proteins, transfection is an extremely useful tool in the study of the cellular and molecular processes that govern neuron function. However, mature neurons have a number of properties that make them difficult to transfect, so specialized techniques are required for the genetic manipulation of this cell type. This video reviews the principles and rationale behind transfecting neurons. Three common strategies for neuronal transfection are discussed, including nucleofection, gene-gun, and viral transduction. In addition to describing how each of these techniques overcomes the challenges associated with transfecting neurons, the presentation includes a description of how all three methods are performed. Finally, several applications of neuronal transfection are introduced, such as the expression of fluorescent tubulin proteins to visualize neuron morphology, and selective gene silencing to generate a cell culture model of Parkinson’s disease.


 Neuroscience

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