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RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, Double-stranded) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, Messenger). The specific dsRNAs are processed into Small interfering rna (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the Rna-induced silencing complex. Dna methylation may also be triggered during this process.
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Interference and Diffraction

JoVE 10424

Source: Yong P. Chen, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Interference and diffraction are characteristic phenomena of waves, ranging from water waves to electromagnetic waves such as light. Interference refers to the phenomenon of when two waves of the same kind overlap to give an alternating spatial variation of large and small wave amplitude. Diffraction refers to the phenomenon of when a wave passes through an aperture or goes around an object, different parts of the wave can interfere and also give rise to a spatial alternation of large and small amplitude. This experiment will demonstrate the wave nature of the light by observing diffraction and interference of a laser light passing through a single slit and double slits, respectively. The slits are simply cut using razor blades in an aluminum foil and the characteristic diffraction and interference patterns manifest as patterns of alternating light and dark fringes on a screen placed after the foil, when the light is shone through the slit(s) on the foil. Historically, the observation of diffraction and interference of light played important roles in establishing that light is an electromagnetic wave.


 Physics II

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Deep Proteome Profiling by Isobaric Labeling, Extensive Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, and Software-assisted Quantification

1St. Jude Proteomics Facility, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 2Departments of Structural Biology and Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 3Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine

JoVE 56474


 Biochemistry

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Simultaneous Evaluation of Cerebral Hemodynamics and Light Scattering Properties of the In Vivo Rat Brain Using Multispectral Diffuse Reflectance Imaging

1Graduate School of Bio-application & Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology, 2Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, National Defense Medical College Research Institute, 3Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University

JoVE 55399


 Neuroscience

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Quantitative Optical Microscopy: Measurement of Cellular Biophysical Features with a Standard Optical Microscope

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health & Science University, School of Medicine, 3Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, Division of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, School of Medicine

JoVE 50988


 Bioengineering

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The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level: Labeling by Antibody Staining, RNAi Loss-of-function Analysis and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56100


 Developmental Biology

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Genome-Wide RNAi Screening to Identify Host Factors That Modulate Oncolytic Virus Therapy

1Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) Research Institute, 2Department of Biology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, 4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary

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JoVE 56913


 JoVE In-Press

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Standing Waves

JoVE 10412

Source: Arianna Brown, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics & Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

Standing waves, or stationary waves, are waves that appear not to propagate and are produced by the interference of two waves traveling in opposite directions with the same frequency and amplitude. These waves appear to vibrate up and down with no linear movement and are most easily identified in vibrating finite media like a plucked guitar string, water in a lake, or air in a room. For example, if a string is fixed at both ends and two identical waves are sent traveling along the length, the first wave will hit the end barrier and reflect back in the opposite direction, and the two waves will superpose to produce a standing wave. This motion is periodic with frequencies defined by the length of the medium and is a visual example of simple harmonic motion. Simple harmonic motion is motion that oscillates or is periodic, where the restoring force is proportional to the displacement, meaning the farther something is pushed, the harder it pushes back. The goal of this experiment is to understand the roles of wave superposition and reflection in creating standing waves, and exploit those concepts to c


 Physics II

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The C. elegans Excretory Canal as a Model for Intracellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis in a Single Cell: labeling by GFP-fusions, RNAi Interaction Screen and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56101


 Developmental Biology

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Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London

JoVE 52773


 Neuroscience

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Preparation of Giant Vesicles Encapsulating Microspheres by Centrifugation of a Water-in-oil Emulsion

1Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women's University, 2Department of Bioorganization Research, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Life and Coordination-Complex Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 4Research Center for Complex Systems Biology, The University of Tokyo

JoVE 55282


 Biochemistry

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Chitosan/Interfering RNA Nanoparticle Mediated Gene Silencing in Disease Vector Mosquito Larvae

1Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 2Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Department of Entomology, Kansas State University

JoVE 52523


 Biology

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Method for the Assessment of Effects of a Range of Wavelengths and Intensities of Red/near-infrared Light Therapy on Oxidative Stress In Vitro

1Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, 2School of Animal Biology and The Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, 3Experimental and Regenerative Neurosciences, School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia

JoVE 52221


 Biology

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Multimodal Quantitative Phase Imaging with Digital Holographic Microscopy Accurately Assesses Intestinal Inflammation and Epithelial Wound Healing

1Department of Medicine B, University Hospital Münster, 2Institute of Palliative Care, University Hospital Münster, 3Biomedical Technology Center, University of Münster, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Klinikum Bielefeld

JoVE 54460


 Medicine

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A Convenient Method for Extraction and Analysis with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites

1School of Public Health of Southeast University, Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety Research Institute of Southeast University in Suzhou, 2Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 3School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 4British Columbia Academy, Nanjing Foreign Language School

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JoVE 56445


 JoVE In-Press

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Adenofection: A Method for Studying the Role of Molecular Chaperones in Cellular Morphodynamics by Depletion-Rescue Experiments

1Département de biologie moléculaire, biochimie médicale et pathologie, Faculté de médecine, Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l'Université Laval, 2Oncology, Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, Université Laval, 3Laboratoire d'études moléculaires des valvulopathies (LEMV), Groupe de recherche en valvulopathies (GRV), Quebec Heart and Lung Institute/Research Center, 4Department of Surgery, Université Laval

JoVE 54557


 Biology

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Preparation and In Vitro Characterization of Magnetized miR-modified Endothelial Cells

1Reference and Translation Center for Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy (RTC), Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Rostock, 2Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 3Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 4Electron Microscopy Center, University of Rostock

JoVE 55567


 Medicine

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