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Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the Crystalline lens of the Eye and in front of the Retina. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.

Ultrahigh Resolution Mouse Optical Coherence Tomography to Aid Intraocular Injection in Retinal Gene Therapy Research

1Research Service, VA Western New York Healthcare System, 2Department of Ophthalmology, (Ross Eye Institute), Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 3Pharmacology/Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 4Physiology/Biophysics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 5Neuroscience Program, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 6The RNA Institute, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 7The SUNY Eye Institute

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55894


 JoVE In-Press

A Step by Step Protocol for Subretinal Surgery in Rabbits

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, 2Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore, 3Geuder AG, 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Münster, 5Section on Epithelial and Retinal Physiology and Disease, National Eye Institute/National Institutes of Health, 6Surgical Retina Department, Singapore National Eye Centre

JoVE 53927


 Medicine

Dissection of Human Retina and RPE-Choroid for Proteomic Analysis

1Barbara & Donald Jonas Stem Cell Laboratory, and Bernard & Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Pathology & Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 2Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, 3Omics Laboratory, Byers Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, 4Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Iowa, 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, 6Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, 7Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), 8Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of EspÍrito Santo (UFES), 9Palo Alto Veterans Administration, Palo Alto, CA

JoVE 56203


 Biochemistry

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital

JoVE 51274


 Neuroscience

Eye Exam

JoVE 10149

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

Proper evaluation of the eyes in a general practice setting involves vision testing, orbit inspection, and ophthalmoscopic examination. Before beginning the exam, it is crucial to be familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the eye. The upper eyelid should be slightly over the iris, but it shouldn't cover the pupil when open; the lower lid lies below the iris. The sclera normally appears white or slightly buff in color. The appearance of conjunctiva, a transparent membrane covering the anterior sclera and the inner eyelids, is a sensitive indicator of ocular disorders, such as infections and inflammation. The tear-producing lacrimal gland lies above and lateral to the eyeball. Tears spread down and across the eye to drain medially into two lacrimal puncta before passing into the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct to the nose. The iris divides the anterior from the posterior chamber. Muscles of the iris control the size of the pupil, and muscles of the ciliary body behind it control the focal length of the lens. The ciliary body also produces aqueous humor, which largely determines intraocular pressure (Figure 1). Cranial nerve


 Physical Examinations II

Measurement of Energy Metabolism in Explanted Retinal Tissue Using Extracellular Flux Analysis

1Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in Saint Louis, 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Washington University School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58626


 JoVE In-Press

Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics in Cone Photoreceptor Axon Terminals of the Mouse Retina

1Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 2Graduate School of Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 3Bernstein Centre for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 4Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of Tübingen, 5Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tübingen

JoVE 52588


 Neuroscience

Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE 10146

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). The spherical eyeball collects and focuses light on the neurosensory cells of the retina. Light is refracted as it passes sequentially through the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous body. The first landmark observed during the funduscopic exam is the optic disc, which is where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter the back of the eye (Figure 2). The disc usually contains a central whitish physiologic cup where the vessels enter; it normally occupies less than half the diameter of the entire disc. Just lateral and slightly inferior is the fovea, a darkened circular area that demarcates the point of central vision. Around this is the macula. A blind spot approximately 15° temporal to the line of gaze results from a lack of photoreceptor cells at the optic disc.

Development of an In Vitro Ocular Platform to Test Contact Lenses

1School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, 2Medella Health

JoVE 53907


 Bioengineering

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