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Chapter 9

Chemical Bonding: Basic Concepts

Types of Chemical Bonds
Chemical bonding theories were pioneered by American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis. He developed a model called the Lewis model to explain the type…
Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule
Chemical bonds are complex interactions between two or more atoms or ions, which reduce the potential energy of the molecule. Gilbert N. Lewis…
Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer
Ions are atoms or molecules bearing an electrical charge. A cation (a positive ion) forms when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons from its…
The Born-Haber Cycle
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
Trends in Lattice Energy: Ion Size and Charge
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures
Compared to ionic bonds, which results from the transfer of electrons between metallic and nonmetallic atoms, covalent bonds result from the mutual…
Electronegativity
Whether a bond is nonpolar or polar covalent is determined by a property of the bonding atoms called electronegativity.  Electronegativity…
Bond Polarity, Dipole Moment, and Percent Ionic Character
The absolute value of the difference in electronegativity (ΔEN) of two bonded atoms provides a rough measure of the polarity to be expected…
Lewis Structures of Molecular Compounds and Polyatomic Ions
To draw Lewis structures for complicated molecules and molecular ions, it is helpful to follow a step-by-step procedure as outlined: Determine the…
Resonance
The Lewis structure of a nitrite anion (NO2−) may actually be drawn in two different ways, distinguished by the locations of the N-O and N=O…
Formal Charges
In some cases, there are seemingly more than one valid Lewis structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. The concept of formal charges can be used…
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Many covalent molecules have central atoms that do not have eight electrons in their Lewis structures. These molecules fall into three…
Bond Energies and Bond Lengths
Stable molecules exist because covalent bonds hold the atoms together. The strength of a covalent bond is measured by the energy required to break…
Bonding in Metals
Metallic bonds are formed between two metal atoms. A simplified model to describe metallic bonding has been developed by Paul Drüde called the…
Palladium <em>N</em>-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Synthesis from Benzimidazolium Salts and Catalytic Activity in Carbon-carbon Bond-forming Reactions
Detailed and generalized protocols are presented for the synthesis and subsequent purification of four palladium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes…
Measurement of Ultrafast Vibrational Coherences in Polyatomic Radical Cations with Strong-Field Adiabatic Ionization
We present a pump-probe method for preparing vibrational coherences in polyatomic radical cations and probing their ultrafast dynamics. By shifting…
Preparation of Carbon Nanosheets at Room Temperature
Amphiphilic molecules equipped with a reactive, carbon-rich "oligoyne" segment consisting of conjugated carbon-carbon triple bonds self-assemble into…

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