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פרק 9
סוגי קשרים כימיים
Chemical bonding theories were pioneered by American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis. He developed a model called the Lewis model to explain the type…
סמלי לואיס וחוק האוקטט
Chemical bonds are complex interactions between two or more atoms or ions, which reduce the potential energy of the molecule. Gilbert N. Lewis…
קישור יוני והעברת אלקטרון
Ions are atoms or molecules bearing an electrical charge. A cation (a positive ion) forms when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons from its…
מעגל בורן-האבר
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
טרנדים באנרגית שריג: גודל ומטען היון
An ionic compound is stable because of the electrostatic attraction between its positive and negative ions. The lattice energy of a compound is a…
קשרים קוולנטים ומבני לואיס
Compared to ionic bonds, which results from the transfer of electrons between metallic and nonmetallic atoms, covalent bonds result from the mutual…
אלקטרושליליות
Whether a bond is nonpolar or polar covalent is determined by a property of the bonding atoms called electronegativity.  Electronegativity…
קיטוב קשר, מומנט דיפול ואחוז אופי יוני
The absolute value of the difference in electronegativity (ΔEN) of two bonded atoms provides a rough measure of the polarity to be expected…
מבני לואיס של תרוכות מולקלוריות ויונים מרובי אטומים
To draw Lewis structures for complicated molecules and molecular ions, it is helpful to follow a step-by-step procedure as outlined: Determine the…
רזוננס
The Lewis structure of a nitrite anion (NO2−) may actually be drawn in two different ways, distinguished by the locations of the N-O and N=O…
מטענים רשמיים
In some cases, there are seemingly more than one valid Lewis structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. The concept of formal charges can be used…
יוצאי דופן לחוק האוקטט
Many covalent molecules have central atoms that do not have eight electrons in their Lewis structures. These molecules fall into three…
אנרגיות קשר ואורכי קשר
Stable molecules exist because covalent bonds hold the atoms together. The strength of a covalent bond is measured by the energy required to break…
קישור במתכות
Metallic bonds are formed between two metal atoms. A simplified model to describe metallic bonding has been developed by Paul Drüde called the…
מדידה של מרביים הרטט Coherences ב Polyatomic רדיקלית קטיונים עם יינון אנווריאנטים חזק-שדה
We present a pump-probe method for preparing vibrational coherences in polyatomic radical cations and probing their ultrafast dynamics. By shifting…
הכנת פחמן Nanosheets בטמפרטורת החדר
Amphiphilic molecules equipped with a reactive, carbon-rich "oligoyne" segment consisting of conjugated carbon-carbon triple bonds self-assemble into…

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