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Chapter 10

Chemical Bonding: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

VSEPR Theory and the Basic Shapes
Valence shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR theory) enables us to predict the molecular structure, including approximate bond angles around…
VSEPR Theory and the Effect of Lone Pairs
It is important to note that electron-pair geometry around a central atom is not the same thing as its molecular structure. Molecular structure…
Predicting Molecular Geometry
The following procedure uses VSEPR theory to determine the electron pair geometries and the molecular structures: Write the Lewis structure of…
Molecular Shape and Polarity
Polar covalent bonds connect two atoms with differing electronegativities, leaving one atom with a partial positive charge (δ+) and the other…
Valence Bond Theory
Valence bond theory describes a covalent bond as the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals (each containing a single electron) that yield a pair…
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals I
The mathematical expression known as the wave function, ψ, contains information about each orbital and the wavelike properties of electrons in an…
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals II
To describe the five bonding orbitals in a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement, we must use five of the valence shell atomic orbitals (the s orbital,…
Molecular Orbital Theory I
Molecular orbital theory describes the distribution of electrons in molecules in the same way as the distribution of electrons in atoms is…
Molecular Orbital Theory II
The relative energy levels of atomic and molecular orbitals are typically shown in a molecular orbital diagram. For a diatomic molecule, the atomic…
Direct Imaging of Laser-driven Ultrafast Molecular Rotation
We present a method for visualizing laser-induced, ultrafast molecular rotational wave packet dynamics. We have developed a new 2-dimensional Coulomb…
Excitonic Hamiltonians for Calculating Optical Absorption Spectra and Optoelectronic Properties of Molecular Aggregates and Solids
Rational design of disordered molecular aggregates and solids for optoelectronic applications relies on our ability to predict the properties of such…
Probing the Structure and Dynamics of Interfacial Water with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy
Water/solid interfaces are ubiquitous and play a key role in many environmental, biophysical, and technological processes. Resolving the internal…

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