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פרק 11
השוואה מולקולרית של גזים, נוזלים ומוצקים
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
כוחות בין מולקולריים לעומת תוך מולקולריים
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
כוחות בין מולקולריים
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
השוואת כוחות בין מולקולריים: נקודת התכה, נקודת רתיחה ומסיסות
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
מתח פנים, פעילות קפילרית וצמיגות
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
מעברי פאזה
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
מעברי פאזה: אידוי ועיביוי
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
לחץ אדים
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
משוואת קלאוזיוס- קלפרון
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
מעברי פאזה: התכה וקיפאון
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
מעברי פאזה: המראה וריבוץ
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
עקומות חימום וקירור
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
דיאגרמת פאזות
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
מבנים של מוצקים
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
מרכזי סריג ומספר קוארדינציה
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
מוצקים מולקולריים ויוניים
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
מבנים קריסלטלים יוניים
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
מוצקים מתכתיים
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
תאוריית מבנה הפסים
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
סריג אטומרי קוולנטי
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
קריסטלוגרפיית קרני רנטגן
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
שיטה למניפולציות מתח פנים של מתכת נוזלית באמצעות חמצון פני שטח והפחתה
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
אפיון של Glycoproteins עם הקיפול בנוגדנים על ידי קריסטלוגרפיה באמצעות קרני רנטגן וטכניקות ביופיזיקלי
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
בדיית טיפות צמיגות גבוהה באמצעות המכשיר נימי Microfluidic עם שלב-היפוך זרימה ושיתוף מבנה
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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