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الفصل 16
تأثير الأيون الشائع
Compared with pure water, the solubility of an ionic compound is less in aqueous solutions containing a common ion (one also produced by dissolution…
المحاليل المنظِّمة
A solution containing appreciable amounts of a weak conjugate acid-base pair is called a buffer solution, or a buffer. Buffer solutions resist a…
معادلة هندرسون هاسلبالخ
The ionization-constant expression for a solution of a weak acid can be written as: Rearranging to solve for [H3O+] yields: Taking the negative…
حساب تغيرات الرقم الهيدروجيني (pH) في محلول منظِّم
A buffer can prevent a sudden drop or increase in the pH of a solution after the addition of a strong acid or base up to its buffering capacity;…
فعالية المحلول المنظِّم
Buffer solutions do not have an unlimited capacity to keep the pH relatively constant . Instead, the ability of a buffer solution to resist changes…
منحنيات معايرة القاعدة الحمضية
A titration curve is a plot of some solution property versus the amount of added titrant. For acid-base titrations, solution pH is a useful property…
حسابات المعايرة: حمض قوي-قاعدة قوية
Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Strong Acid/Strong Base A titration is carried out for 25.00 mL of 0.100 M HCl (strong acid) with 0.100 M of…
حسابات المعايرة: حمض ضعيف-قاعدة ضعيفة
Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Weak Acid/Strong Base For the titration of 25.00 mL of 0.100 M CH3CO2H with 0.100 M NaOH, the reaction can be…
المؤشّرات
Certain organic substances change color in dilute solution when the hydronium ion concentration reaches a particular value. For example,…
معايرة حمض بوليبروتيك
A polyprotic acid contains more than one ionizable hydrogen and undergoes a stepwise ionization process.  If the acid dissociation constants of…
توازنات الذوبان
Solubility equilibria are established when the dissolution and precipitation of a solute species occur at equal rates. These equilibria underlie many…
العوامل المؤثّرة على الذويان
Compared with pure water, the solubility of an ionic compound is less in aqueous solutions containing a common ion (one also produced by dissolution…
تكوين الأيونات المعقّدة
A type of Lewis acid-base chemistry involves the formation of a complex ion (or a coordination complex) comprising a central atom, typically a…
ترسيب الأيونات
Predicting Precipitation The equation that describes the equilibrium between solid calcium carbonate and its solvated ions is: It is important to…
التحليل النوعي
For solutions containing mixtures of different cations, the identity of each cation can be determined by qualitative analysis. This technique…

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