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פרק 16
אפקט היון המשותף
Compared with pure water, the solubility of an ionic compound is less in aqueous solutions containing a common ion (one also produced by dissolution…
בופרים
A solution containing appreciable amounts of a weak conjugate acid-base pair is called a buffer solution, or a buffer. Buffer solutions resist a…
משואת הנדרסון-האסבלך
The ionization-constant expression for a solution of a weak acid can be written as: Rearranging to solve for [H3O+] yields: Taking the negative…
חישוב שינוייpH בתמיסת בופר
A buffer can prevent a sudden drop or increase in the pH of a solution after the addition of a strong acid or base up to its buffering capacity;…
יעילות בופר
Buffer solutions do not have an unlimited capacity to keep the pH relatively constant . Instead, the ability of a buffer solution to resist changes…
עקומות טירציית חומצה-בסיס
A titration curve is a plot of some solution property versus the amount of added titrant. For acid-base titrations, solution pH is a useful property…
חישובי טיטרציה: חומצה חזקה- בסיס חזק
Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Strong Acid/Strong Base A titration is carried out for 25.00 mL of 0.100 M HCl (strong acid) with 0.100 M of…
חישובי טיטרציה: חומצה חלשה- בסיס חלש
Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Weak Acid/Strong Base For the titration of 25.00 mL of 0.100 M CH3CO2H with 0.100 M NaOH, the reaction can be…
אינדיקטורים
Certain organic substances change color in dilute solution when the hydronium ion concentration reaches a particular value. For example,…
טירציה של חומצה רב פרוטית
A polyprotic acid contains more than one ionizable hydrogen and undergoes a stepwise ionization process.  If the acid dissociation constants of…
שיווי משקל מסיסות
Solubility equilibria are established when the dissolution and precipitation of a solute species occur at equal rates. These equilibria underlie many…
גורמים המשפיעים על מסיסות
Compared with pure water, the solubility of an ionic compound is less in aqueous solutions containing a common ion (one also produced by dissolution…
יצירת יוני קומפלקס
A type of Lewis acid-base chemistry involves the formation of a complex ion (or a coordination complex) comprising a central atom, typically a…
שיקוע של יוני
Predicting Precipitation The equation that describes the equilibrium between solid calcium carbonate and its solvated ions is: It is important to…
אנליזה איכותית
For solutions containing mixtures of different cations, the identity of each cation can be determined by qualitative analysis. This technique…
סינתזה של טוהר גבוהה חומצה Dialkylphosphinic Nonsymmetric Extractants
We present the synthesis of (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid as an example to demonstrate a method for the synthesis of…
ההפרדה סולפט ידי סלקטיבי התגבשות עם ליגנד Bis-iminoguanidinium
A simple and effective method for selective sulfate separation from aqueous solutions by crystallization with a bis-guanidinium ligand,…

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