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Кислотно-основное равновесие и равновесие растворимости

Общий ионный эффект
Compared with pure water, the solubility of an ionic compound is less in aqueous solutions containing a common ion (one also produced by dissolution…
Буферы
A solution containing appreciable amounts of a weak conjugate acid-base pair is called a buffer solution, or a buffer. Buffer solutions resist a…
Уравнение Хендерсона-Хассельбаха
The ionization-constant expression for a solution of a weak acid can be written as: Rearranging to solve for [H3O+] yields: Taking the negative…
Расчет изменений pH в буферном растворе
A buffer can prevent a sudden drop or increase in the pH of a solution after the addition of a strong acid or base up to its buffering capacity;…
Эффективность буфера
Buffer solutions do not have an unlimited capacity to keep the pH relatively constant . Instead, the ability of a buffer solution to resist changes…
Кривые кислотно-основного титрования
A titration curve is a plot of some solution property versus the amount of added titrant. For acid-base titrations, solution pH is a useful property…
Расчеты титрования: сильная кислота - сильное основание
Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Strong Acid/Strong Base A titration is carried out for 25.00 mL of 0.100 M HCl (strong acid) with 0.100 M of…
Расчеты титрования: слабая кислота - слабое основание
Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Weak Acid/Strong Base For the titration of 25.00 mL of 0.100 M CH3CO2H with 0.100 M NaOH, the reaction can be…
Индикаторы
Certain organic substances change color in dilute solution when the hydronium ion concentration reaches a particular value. For example,…
Титрование полипротонной кислоты
A polyprotic acid contains more than one ionizable hydrogen and undergoes a stepwise ionization process.  If the acid dissociation constants of…
Равновесия растворимости
Solubility equilibria are established when the dissolution and precipitation of a solute species occur at equal rates. These equilibria underlie many…
Факторы, влияющие на растворимость
Compared with pure water, the solubility of an ionic compound is less in aqueous solutions containing a common ion (one also produced by dissolution…
Образование сложных ионов.
A type of Lewis acid-base chemistry involves the formation of a complex ion (or a coordination complex) comprising a central atom, typically a…
Осаждение ионов
Predicting Precipitation The equation that describes the equilibrium between solid calcium carbonate and its solvated ions is: It is important to…
Качественный анализ
For solutions containing mixtures of different cations, the identity of each cation can be determined by qualitative analysis. This technique…

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