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細胞とは?
Cells are the smallest and basic units of life, whether it is a single cell that forms the entire organism, e.g., in a bacterium or trillions of…
細胞の大きさ
The size of cells varies widely among and within organisms. For instance, the smallest bacteria are 0.1 micrometers (μm) in diameter—about a…
真核生物の区画化
One of the distinguishing features of eukaryotic cells is that they contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, that…
原核細胞
Prokaryotes are small unicellular organisms that include the domains—Archaea and Bacteria. Bacteria include many common organisms, such as…
細胞質
The cytoplasm consists of organelles, an aqueous solution called the cytosol, and a framework of protein scaffolds called the cytoskeleton. The…
核
The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a eukaryotic organism’s genetic instructions in the form of chromosomal DNA. This is…
小胞体
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells is a substantial network of interconnected membranes with diverse functions, from calcium storage…
リボソーム
Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells…
ゴルジ体
As they leave the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), properly folded and assembled proteins are selectively packaged into vesicles. These vesicles are…
微小管
There are three types of cytoskeletal structures in eukaryotic cells—microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. With a diameter…
ミトコンドリア
Mitochondria and peroxisomes are organelles that are the primary sites of oxygen usage in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria carry out cellular…
ギャップ結合
Multicellular organisms employ a variety of ways for cells to communicate with each other. Gap junctions are specialized proteins that form pores…
細胞外マトリックス
In order to maintain tissue organization, many animal cells are surrounded by structural molecules that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM).…
組織
Cells with similar structure and function are grouped into tissues. A group of tissues with a specialized function is called an organ. There are four…
植物の細胞壁
The plant cell wall gives plant cells shape, support, and protection. As a cell matures, its cell wall specializes according to the cell type. For…
原形質連絡
The organs in a multicellular organism’s body are made up of tissues formed by cells. To work together cohesively, cells must communicate. One…
βバレル外膜タンパク質の構造決意を目指して - 構築物から結晶へ
Membrane proteins serve important functions in cells such as nutrient transport, motility, signaling, survival and virulence, yet constitute only ~1%…
リコンビナーゼ媒介カセット交換を用いて、マウス胚性幹細胞における構造と機能の研究
Gene engineering in mouse embryos or embryonic stem cells (mESCs) allows for the study of the function of a given protein. Proteins are the…
HIV-1陽性個体の血漿からエキソソームの単離
Exosomes are small vesicles ranging in size from 30 nm to 100 nm that are released both constitutively and upon stimulation from a variety of cell…

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