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Chapitre 5

Membranes et transport cellulaire

Qu'est ce qu'une membrane?
A key characteristic of life is the ability to separate the external environment from the internal space. To do this, cells have evolved…
Fluidité membranaire
Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates loosely attached to one another through chemical interactions. Molecules…
Le modèle de mosaïque fluide
The fluid mosaic model was first proposed as a visual representation of research observations. The model comprises the composition and dynamics of…
Qu'est-ce qu'un gradient électrochimique ?
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is considered the primary energy source in cells. However, energy can also be stored in the electrochemical gradient…
Diffusion
Diffusion is the passive movement of substances down their concentration gradients—requiring no expenditure of cellular energy. Substances,…
Osmose
Approximately 60% to 95% of the weight of living organisms is attributed to water. Therefore, maintaining appropriate water balance within cells is…
Tonicité chez les animaux
The tonicity of a solution determines if a cell gains or loses water in that solution. The tonicity depends on the permeability of the cell membrane…
Tonicité dans les plantes
Tonicity describes the capacity of a cell to lose or gain water. It depends on the quantity of solute that does not penetrate the membrane. Tonicity…
Associations de protéines
The cell membrane—or plasma membrane—is an ever-changing landscape. It is described as a fluid mosaic as various macromolecules are embedded in…
Transport facilité
The chemical and physical properties of plasma membranes cause them to be selectively permeable. Since plasma membranes have both hydrophobic and…
Transport actif primaire
In contrast to passive transport, active transport involves a substance being moved through membranes in a direction against its concentration or…
Transport actif secondaire
One example of how cells use the energy contained in electrochemical gradients is demonstrated by glucose transport into cells. The ion vital to this…
Endocytose médiée par un récepteur
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a process through which bulk amounts of specific molecules can be imported into a cell after binding to cell…
Pinocytose
Cells use energy-requiring bulk transport mechanisms to transfer large particles, or large amounts of small particles, into or out of the cell. The…
Phagocytose
Cells pull particles inward and engulf them in spherical vesicles in an energy-requiring process called endocytosis. Phagocytosis (“cellular…
Exocytose
Exocytosis is used to release material from cells. Like other bulk transport mechanisms, exocytosis requires energy. While endocytosis takes…
Molecular Diffusion in Plasma Membranes of Primary Lymphocytes Measured by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful technique for studying the diffusion of molecules within biological membranes with high…
The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to…
Examination of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling Using FM Dyes During Evoked, Spontaneous, and Miniature Synaptic Activities
Synaptic vesicles in functional nerve terminals undergo exocytosis and endocytosis. This synaptic vesicle recycling can be effectively analyzed using…

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