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Was ist Stoffwechsel?
Metabolism represents all of the chemical activity in a cell, including reactions that build molecules (anabolism) and those that break molecules…
Erster Thermodynamischer Hauptsatz
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. This can be demonstrated within a classic food…
Zweiter Thermodynamischer Hauptsatz
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy, or the amount of disorder in a system, increases each time energy is transferred or…
Kinetische Energie
Kinetic energy is the ability of an object in motion to do work or enact change. It can take on many forms. For instance, water flowing down a…
Potenzielle Energie
Potential energy is a stored form of energy that has the potential to do work, and therefore, to be converted into kinetic energy. Gravitational…
Freie Energie
Free energy—abbreviated as G for the scientist Gibbs who discovered it—is a measurement of useful energy that can be extracted from a…
Aktivierungsenergie
Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy necessary for a chemical reaction to move forward. The higher the activation energy, the slower the…
Hydrolyse von ATP
The bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be broken through the addition of water, releasing one or two phosphate groups in an exergonic process…
Phosphorylierung
The addition or removal of phosphate groups from proteins is the most common chemical modification that regulates cellular processes. These…
Induced-Fit-Theorie
Most chemical reactions in cells require enzymes—biological catalysts that speed up the reaction without being used up or permanently changed.…
Enzymkinetik
Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy of the reactants. The speed at which the enzyme turns reactants into products is called…
Enzymhemmung
Inhibitors are molecules that reduce enzyme activity by binding to the enzyme. In a normally functioning cell, enzymes are regulated by a variety of…
Feedback-Hemmung
Biochemical reactions are occurring constantly in cells, converting starting substances to different products, usually with the help of enzymes that…
Allosterische Verordnung
Allosteric regulation of enzymes occurs when the binding of a molecule to a different location from the active site causes a change in enzymatic…
Cofaktoren und Coenzyme
Enzymes require additional components for proper function. There are two such classes of molecules: cofactors and coenzymes. Cofactors are metallic…
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