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פרק 12
שפה גנטית
An organism is diploid if it inherits two variants, or alleles, of each gene, one from each parent. These two alleles constitute the genotype for a…
ריבועי פנט
A Punnett square displays the possible genotypes offspring can inherit from two parental genotypes. If a trait’s inheritance pattern (e.g.,…
הצלבות חד-היברידיות
In the 1850s and 1860s, Gregor Mendel investigated inheritance by performing monohybrid crosses in pea plants. He crossed two plants that were…
הצלבות דו-היברידיות
To determine whether traits are inherited together or separately, Gregor Mendel crossed pea plants that differed in two traits. These parental…
חוק ההפרדה
When crossing pea plants, Mendel noticed that one of the parental traits would sometimes disappear in the first generation of offspring, called the…
חוק המגוון העצמאי
While Mendel’s Law of Segregation states that the two alleles for one gene are separated into different gametes, a different question of how…
הצלבת מבחן
Alleles are different forms of the same gene. Humans and other diploid organisms inherit two alleles of every gene, one from each parent. An allele…
ניתוח אילן יוחסין
A pedigree is a diagram displaying a family’s history of a trait. Analyzing pedigrees can reveal (1) whether a trait is dominant or…
חוקי הסתברות
The probability of inheriting a trait can be calculated using the sum and product rules. The sum rule is used to calculate the probability of…
תכונות אללים מרובים
Multiple allelism describes genes that exist in three or more allelic forms. Although diploid organisms, like humans, normally possess only two…
תאורית התורשה הכרומוזומלית
In 1866, Gregor Mendel published the results of his pea plant breeding experiments, providing evidence for predictable patterns in the inheritance of…
תורשה לא-גרעינית
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
תכונות מקושרות-X
In most mammalian species, females have two X sex chromosomes and males have an X and Y. As a result, mutations on the X chromosome in females may be…
הפרעון מקושרות-מין
Like autosomes, sex chromosomes contain a variety of genes necessary for normal body function. When a mutation in one of these genes results in…
השתקת-X
The human X chromosome contains over ten times the number of genes as in the Y chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, and females have…
אפיסטאזיס
In addition to multiple alleles at the same locus influencing traits, numerous genes or alleles at different locations may interact and influence…
תכונות פוליגניות
When more than one gene is responsible for a given phenotype, the trait is considered polygenic. Human height is a polygenic trait. Studies have…
פליאוטרופיה
Pleiotropy is the phenomenon in which a single gene impacts multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits. For example, defects in the SOX10 gene…
תורשה מול סביבה
Many human characteristics, like height, are shaped by both nature—in other words, by our genes—and by nurture, or our environment. For…

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