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Kapitel 13

DNA-Struktur und -Funktion

Die DNA-Helix
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the genetic material responsible for passing traits from generation to generation in all organisms and most…
Verpackung der DNA
Eukaryotes have large genomes compared to prokaryotes. In order to fit their genomes into a cell, eukaryotes must pack their DNA tightly inside the…
Organisation der Gene
The genomes of eukaryotes can be structured in several functional categories. A strand of DNA is comprised of genes and intergenic regions. Genes…
Die Karyotypisierung
Describing the number and physical features of chromosomes can reveal abnormalities that underlie genetic diseases. This description is facilitated…
Replikation in Prokaryoten
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
Replikation in Eukaryoten
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
Korrekturen
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
Reparatur von Fehlanpassungen
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
Nukleotid-Exzisionsreparatur
Exposure to mutagens can damage DNA and result in bulky lesions that distort the double-helix structure or impede proper transcription. Damaged DNA…
Mutationen
Mutations are changes in the sequence of DNA. These changes can occur spontaneously or they can be induced by exposure to environmental factors.…
Transkription
Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA sequence by RNA polymerase. It is the first step in producing a protein from a gene…
Translation
Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from the genetic information carried by messenger RNA (mRNA). Following transcription, it…
Bakterielle Transformation
In 1928, bacteriologist Frederick Griffith worked on a vaccine for pneumonia, which is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Griffith studied…
Falten und Charakterisierung eines Bio-responsive Robot von DNA-Origami
The DNA nanorobot is a hollow hexagonal nanometric device, designed to open in response to specific stimuli and present cargo sequestered inside.…
Der Chip-exo-Methode: Ermittlung von Protein-DNA-Wechselwirkungen mit Near-Basenpaar Precision
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an indispensable tool in the fields of epigenetics and gene regulation that isolates specific protein-DNA…
Die Anwendung der Stopped-Flow-Kinetics Methoden der Wirkmechanismus eines DNA-Repair Protein Untersuchen
Transient kinetic analysis is indispensable for understanding the workings of biological macromolecules, since this approach yields mechanistic…
Atommikroskopie Untersuchungen zur DNA-Läsionserkennung bei der Nucleotide Excision Repair
AFM imaging is a powerful technique for the study of protein-DNA interactions. This single molecule method allows the simultaneous resolution of…

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