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第13章

DNA结构与功能

DNA螺旋
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the genetic material responsible for passing traits from generation to generation in all organisms and most…
DNA包装
Eukaryotes have large genomes compared to prokaryotes. In order to fit their genomes into a cell, eukaryotes must pack their DNA tightly inside the…
基因的组织
The genomes of eukaryotes can be structured in several functional categories. A strand of DNA is comprised of genes and intergenic regions. Genes…
染色体核型分析
Describing the number and physical features of chromosomes can reveal abnormalities that underlie genetic diseases. This description is facilitated…
原核生物的复制
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
真核生物的复制
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
校对
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
错配修复
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
核苷酸切除修复
Exposure to mutagens can damage DNA and result in bulky lesions that distort the double-helix structure or impede proper transcription. Damaged DNA…
突变
Mutations are changes in the sequence of DNA. These changes can occur spontaneously or they can be induced by exposure to environmental factors.…
转录
Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA sequence by RNA polymerase. It is the first step in producing a protein from a gene…
翻译
Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from the genetic information carried by messenger RNA (mRNA). Following transcription, it…
细菌转化
In 1928, bacteriologist Frederick Griffith worked on a vaccine for pneumonia, which is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Griffith studied…
折叠的DNA折纸一个生物反应机器人与表征
The DNA nanorobot is a hollow hexagonal nanometric device, designed to open in response to specific stimuli and present cargo sequestered inside.…
该芯片外型方法:确定蛋白质-DNA相互作用与近基部精密配对
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an indispensable tool in the fields of epigenetics and gene regulation that isolates specific protein-DNA…
停流的动力学方法的应用研究的一种DNA修复蛋白的行动机制
Transient kinetic analysis is indispensable for understanding the workings of biological macromolecules, since this approach yields mechanistic…
原子力显微镜检查DNA损伤识别核苷酸切除修复
AFM imaging is a powerful technique for the study of protein-DNA interactions. This single molecule method allows the simultaneous resolution of…

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