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Chapter 33

Evolutionary History

Phylogenetic Trees
Phylogenetic trees come in many forms. It matters in which sequence the organisms are arranged from the bottom to the top of the tree, but the…
Conditions on Early Earth
Around 4 billion years ago, oceans began to condense on earth while volcanic eruptions released nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and…
The Colonization of Land
Changes in the environment of the early Earth drove the evolution of organisms. As prokaryotic organisms in the oceans began to photosynthesize, they…
Ultra-long Read Sequencing for Whole Genomic DNA Analysis
Third generation single-molecule DNA sequencing technologies offer significantly longer read length that can facilitate the assembly of complex…
Procedure for Adaptive Laboratory Evolution of Microorganisms Using a Chemostat
Natural evolution involves genetic diversity such as environmental change and a selection between small populations. Adaptive laboratory evolution…
Wholemount In Situ Hybridization for <em>Astyanax</em> Embryos
In recent years, a draft genome for the blind Mexican cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus) has been released, revealing the sequence identities for…
Manipulation of Gene Function in Mexican Cavefish
Cave animals provide a compelling system for investigating the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic bases underlying changes in numerous complex…

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