We present an optimized local ejection procedure using a glass micro-pipette and a fast two-photon hyperstack imaging method, which allows precise measurement of capillary diameter changes and investigation of its regulation in three dimensions.
Cite this ArticleCopy Citation | Download Citations | Reprints and Permissions
Cai, C., Zambach, S. A., Fordsmann, J. C., Lønstrup, M., Thomsen, K. J., Jensen, A. G. K., Lauritzen, M. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Two-Photon Microscopy to Study Conducted Vascular Responses by Local ATP Ejection Using a Glass Micro-Pipette. J. Vis. Exp. (148), e59286, doi:10.3791/59286 (2019).
Translate text to:
Maintenance of normal brain function requires a sufficient and efficient supply of oxygen and nutrition by a complex network of vessels. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is incompletely understood, especially at the capillary level. Two-photon microscopy is a powerful tool widely used to study CBF and its regulation. Currently, this field is limited by the lack of in vivo two-photon microscopy studies examining (1) CBF responses in three-dimensions, (2) conducted vascular responses, and (3) localized interventions within the vascular network. Here, we describe a 3D in vivo method using two-photon microscopy to study conducted vascular responses elicited by local ejection of ATP with a glass micro-pipette. Our method uses fast and repetitive hyperstack two-photon imaging providing precise diameter measurements by maximal intensity projection of the obtained images. Furthermore, we show that this method can also be used to study 3D astrocytic calcium responses. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of glass micro-pipette insertion and two-photon hyperstack imaging.
The brain has a high energy consumption rate. About 20% of the oxygen and 25% of the glucose consumed by the human body are dedicated to brain function, while the brain only occupies 2% of the total body mass. Maintenance of normal brain function requires a sufficient and efficient supply of oxygen and nutrition by blood flow in a complex network of vessels. Local brain activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) are robustly coupled, depending on the functional properties of neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs)1. Recently, the first few orders of capillaries branching from penetrating arterioles have emerged as a 'hotspot'2, showing active regulation of capillary blood flow. A slow conducted vascular response (CVR) was discovered at this 'hotspot' in mouse somatosensory cortex during both whisker stimulation and local ejection (puffing) of ATP with a glass micro-pipette3.
Although in vivo imaging by two-photon laser scanning fluorescent microscopy has been widely used for studying neurovascular responses in cerebral cortex, most of the studies measured blood vessel diameters and investigated their regulation in a two-dimensional (2D) x-y plane. The challenges are: Firstly, cerebral blood vessels and their embracing astrocytes, pericytes and SMCs construct branches in three dimensions (3D). It is therefore crucial to study their interactions in 3D. Secondly, even a small amount of drift in focus will affect the precise measurement of both vessel diameters and cellular fluorescent signals. Finally, CVRs are fast and far-reaching in three dimensions. 3D volume scanning is optimal for detecting CVRs and unveiling their mechanisms. We implemented a piezo motor objective in a two-photon microscope to study mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo, allowing precise diameter measurements by maximal intensity projections of the obtained images.
Glass micro-pipettes have frequently been used for in vivo brain studies, e.g., to bulk-load organic dyes4, record EEGs5 and for patch clamping6. Nonetheless, limitations remain. Commonly, the tip of the glass micro-pipette is imprecisely placed, or the micro-pipette is not used for local interventions. Here, we have optimized the procedure of micro-pipette insertion and local ejection.
Furthermore, the combination of 3D two-photon microscopy and genetically-encoded fluorescent indicators offers an unprecedented opportunity to investigate neurovascular coupling in a 3D scope. In this study, we took advantage of this and injected viral vectors carrying astrocyte specific genetically-encoded calcium indicators into the mouse somatosensory cortex. Astrocytes as well as vessel diameters were imaged simultaneously by combining different fluorescent markers.
Overall, we present an optimized method of local ejection (puffing) by glass micro-pipette and fast two-photon hyperstack imaging, which allows precise measurement of capillary diameter changes. In addition, our method provides a novel tool to simultaneously study 3D profiles of Ca2+ responses in astrocytes and vascular diameter responses.
All procedures involving animals were approved by the Danish National Ethics Committee according to the guidelines set forth in the European Council’s Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes and were in compliance with the ARRIVE guidelines. This is a terminal procedure with the mice being euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery.
1. Pre-surgical preparation
- Clean the surgical table and all the surrounding area with 70% ethanol. Thoroughly clean and dry the surgical tools before the surgery.
- Anesthetize an NG2DsRed mouse (Tg(Cspg4-DsRed.T1)1Akik/J; both genders; 4-8 months old) by a peritoneal injection of ketamine + xylazine (60 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg) dissolved in sterilized water, pH 7.4. Administer supplemental doses of ketamine (30 mg/kg) every 25 min until completion of the surgical procedure. Check tail and toe pinch reflexes regularly to verify the depth of anesthesia.
- Inject saline subcutaneously at four different locations on the back of the mouse for a total volume of 1 mL to prevent dehydration during the experiment. To protect the eyes from drying out, apply eye lubricant. Maintain body temperature at 37 °C using a rectal temperature probe and heating blanket.
2. Surgical procedure
- Place the mouse on its back. Inject 0.04 mL of 0.5% lidocaine subcutaneously under the planned incision and wait for 2 min. Make a 10 mm long incision above the chest bone (manubrium). Separate the submandibular glands and sternothyroid muscles, and then expose the trachea.
- Make tracheostomy between two tracheal rings with scissors. Insert a small metal tube with a length of 16.2 mm and a diameter of 1 mm into the trachea. Connect the tube to a mechanical ventilator and capnograph to monitor the end-expiratory CO2 (Figure 1A).
- Catheter insertion
- Inject 0.5% lidocaine (0.04 mL) subcutaneously under the planned incision and wait for 2 min.
- Using fine tip forceps gently separate the artery from the vein. Stop the blood flow upstream with a microvascular clamp. Constrict the blood flow downstream with a 10-0 nylon suture ligating both blood vessels.
- Use micro-dissecting scissors to make a small incision in both the artery and the vein. Insert plastic catheters into both blood vessels. Secure the catheters by tightening the sutures (8-0 or 10-0 nylon sutures dependent on the vessel size) without compromising catheter lumens. Remove the microvascular clamp and close the skin.
- Monitor blood pressure via the arterial catheter. Measure levels of blood gases in arterial blood samples (50 μL) before and after each experiment (normal values: pO2, 90-120 mmHg; pCO2, 35-40 mmHg; pH, 7.25-7.45) using a blood gas analyzer. Use the vein catheter for infusion of fluorescein and anesthesia.
- Shave the fur off the head of the mouse between the ears. Inject 0.04 mL of 0.5% lidocaine subcutaneously under the planned incision and wait for 2 min.
- Wipe the skull using a 10% iron-chloride solution to remove the periosteum. Rinse the skull thoroughly with saline. Glue a metal head bar to the skull with cyanoacrylate glue and activator (Figure 1A).
NOTE: The metal head bar is 75 mm long and 13.5 mm wide, with a round hole of 5 mm diameter in the center.
- Drill a 4-mm-diameter craniotomy, centered at 0.5 mm behind and 3 mm to the right of the bregma over the right sensory barrel cortex. Remove the dura with a fine-tip vessel dilator.
- Cover the exposed cortex with 0.75% agarose gel, dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF; pH = 7.4) and cooled to 35 °C. Cover 80-90% of the craniotomy with a glass coverslip at an angle of 10-15° to the metal head bar (Figure 1B) that permits insertion and placement of the glass micro-pipette.
- To minimize brain pulsation, glue the two corners of the glass coverslip onto the metal head bar with cyanoacrylate glue and activator. Apply the activator carefully to prevent getting onto the exposed brain. Rinse the glued glass coverslip thoroughly with saline afterwards.
- Perform insertion of the whisker pad stimulation probe. Insert a set of custom-made bipolar electrodes (8 mm length and 0.25 mm thickness) percutaneously into the left side of face to stimulate the ramus infraorbitalis of the trigeminal nerve contralateral to the craniotomy. Position the cathode close to the hiatus infraorbitalis, and insert the anode into the masticatory muscles7. Perform the stimulation with an electrical stimulator at an intensity of 1.5 mA for 1 ms in trains of 20 s at 2 Hz.
- Upon completion of surgery, administer a bolus of 0.05 mL fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran, 4% w/v, molecular weight [MW] 50,000) into the femoral vein to label the blood plasma. Discontinue ketamine and switch the anesthesia to continuous intravenous infusion of α-chloralose (17% w/v, final concentration) mixed with FITC-dextran (2% w/v, final concentration) at 0.02 mL/10 g/h. Wait for about half an hour for stabilization of the new anesthetic state.
NOTE: Both FITC-dextran and α-chloralose are dissolved in 0.9% saline.
3. First two-photon imaging session
- Transfer the mouse to the stage of a commercial two-photon microscope (Table of Materials). Under both red fluorescent protein (RFP, Figure 1C) and green fluorescent protein (GFP, Figure 1C) modes of epi-fluorescent illumination, take a picture of the exposed cortex with a 5x objective. Use the RFP picture as a 'map' for insertion of the glass micro-pipette in the next session.
NOTE: The GFP 'map' is used to distinguish veins/venules from arteries/arterioles.
- Perform two-photon imaging using the two-photon microscope and a 25x 1.0 numerical aperture (NA) water-immersion objective with piezo motor. Set the excitation wavelength to 900 nm. Search the cortex and follow each penetrating arteriole and find its horizontal branches (1st order capillaries).
- Image penetrating arterioles and their 1st order capillaries at rest and during whisker pad stimulation. See the detailed imaging parameters in section 5.
- Mark locations of 1st order capillaries with >5% vasodilation during whisker pad stimulation on the RFP 'map' (Figure 1C). Locations with <5% vasodilation are considered as being outside of the whisker barrel cortex region.
NOTE: If using wild-type mice instead of NG2DsRed mice in the experiment, the GFP image is used as ‘map’ instead.
4. Insertion of the glass micro-pipette
- Prepare glass micro-pipettes for puffing using a pipette puller (Table of Materials). The glass micro-pipettes have a resistance of 3-3.5 MΩ and a taper length of 4.5-5 mm. Load a pipette with a mixture of 1 mM ATP and 10 µM Alexa 594 in order to visualize the pipette tip under the epi-fluorescent lamp and two-photon microscope.
- Mount the glass micro-pipette onto a patch clamp holder and connect it to an air pump. Set the pump holding pressure to 0 psi.
- Using red epi-fluorescent illumination, focus on the pipette tip with the 5x objective. Place the glass micro-pipette into the aCSF above the agarose. Adjust the holding pressure of the air pump to 0.2 psi. A small red cloud can be observed ejecting out of pipette tip in the aCSF. This is to prevent clogging during pipette insertion.
- Choose one of the marked locations in the RFP 'map' as destination. Move the pipette tip to the horizontal plane of the cover glass edge with 30 µm distance, roughly pointing towards the destination in the x-y plane.
- Carefully lower the pipette tip in z-axis under the cover glass slip. Then start advancing the glass pipette towards the destination until ~500 µm above the brain surface. Switch focus frequently between the cover glass edge, the pipette tip and the brain surface, making sure there is enough free space for moving the pipette.
- Switch the objective to 25x. Re-center the pipette tip and advance the pipette tip further towards the destination on the RFP 'map'. Keep the pipette tip in the agarose layer.
- When the pipette tip is ~100 µm above the brain surface, switch the imaging mode to two-photon microscopy. Focus on a target location at which to puff. Write down its x, y coordinates (x0, y0) and its depth below the surface (z0). Calculate the coordinates of the insertion point on the brain surface (xi, yi) as follows:
xi = x0 + z0 / tan θ
yi = y0
where θ is the angle between the pipette holder and the horizontal plane.
- Position the pipette tip to the coordinates (xi, yi) on the brain surface. Gently and slowly insert the pipette until it reaches (x0, y0, z0). If a vessel is in the way of an insertion path, withdraw the pipette and re-calculate other insertion coordinates and path; or turn the stage plate slightly (as indicated in Figure 1A).
- Set the pump holding pressure at 0 psi and ejection pressure at 10-15 psi. Puff ATP for 200-400 ms at the target location during two-photon imaging. Adjust the pressure and duration of puffing for each pipette and over time as explained in the discussion section.
5. Hyperstack two-photon imaging
- Perform experiments using the two-photon microscope and a 25 x 1.0 NA water-immersion objective with piezo motor. Set the excitation wavelength to 900 nm. Filter the emitted light to collect red light from DsRed (pericytes)/tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-dextran (TRITC-dextran) staining blood plasma and green light from FITC-dextran (blood plasma)/GCaMP6 (GFP, astrocytic calcium).
- Produce a high-resolution z-stack at the location of interest containing a penetrating arteriole, a 1st order capillary, a 2nd order capillary and possibly neighboring fluorescent cells (e.g., pericytes, astrocytes). Determine the x*y*z volume of hyperstack imaging by including the 3D structure of the blood vessels as much as possible. The total height of each stack may vary from 30-50 μm, while the x-y plane roughly covers an area of 60 µm x 40 µm.
- Set the image stack in the imaging software to be comprised of 8-10 planes with an inter-plane distance of 4-5 µm. The piezo-motor objective stops at each level on the z-axis to acquire the image of each plane. The sampling rate is 1 s per stack and pixel resolution in the x-y plane is 0.2-0.3 µm (Figure 2A). One recording normally includes 10 pre-puff image stacks and 150 post-puff image stacks.
6. Data processing
- Process data using custom-made analytical software. Flatten each image stack into one image by maximal intensity projection (Figure 2B). Draw a rectangular region of interest (ROI) with a width of 3 µm perpendicularly across the vessel of interest (Figure 2C).
- To minimize interference from shadows of red blood cells and from minor vibrations of the cortex, average the rectangular ROI by projecting it into one line, which then represents the average profile of the vessel segment. Do this for each maximal intensity image.
- Plot the profile lines as a 2D image with the x-axis representing maximal intensity images in chronological order (Figure 2D, upper panel). Use an active contour algorithm (Chan-Vese segmentation) to find the edges of the vessel8,9 (indicated by red curves; Figure 2D, upper panel).
- Calculate the time course of the diameter changes as the difference between the edges of the blood vessel (vertical distance between the upper and lower red curves in Figure 2D, lower panel). Normalize diameter changes to pre-puffing diameter baseline and plot curves of diameter change over time. Do this for each ROI (Figure 2E).
- The vessel response amplitude is defined as the highest/lowest peak amplitude after puffing. The response latency is defined as the latency of half-max amplitude (Figure 2G). Manually trace the skeletonized vascular structure by placing nodes along the vessels (Figure 2F) and measuring geographical distance between each ROI and the penetrating arteriole. Calculate CVR speed by dividing the distances by latency differences.
7. Viral vector injection
- In order to simultaneously study astrocytic calcium responses, inject a volume of 0.6 µL viral vector (pZac2.1 gfaABC1D-lck-GCaMP6f, Addgene) into the somatosensory cortex of NG2DsRed mice, following the standard stereotactic viral vector injection procedure10.
- After three weeks, astrocytes in mouse somatosensory cortex express the genetically encoded calcium indicator, GCaMP6f. Follow the aforementioned surgical procedure and two-photon imaging for mice. To distinguish between astrocytes and vessel lumina, TRITC-dextran instead of FITC-dextran is used to stain vessel lumina red.
Once the surgery was complete, mice were transported to two-photon microscope (Figure 1A). A glass micro-pipette containing 1 mM ATP was inserted in proximity of the destination blood vessel at the target location (Figure 1B).
We performed hyperstack imaging while giving a puff of 1 mM ATP (Figure 2A, Supplementary Video 1). Each image stack was flattened to one image by maximal intensity projection (Figure 2B). Rectangular ROIs were placed perpendicularly across the vessel to measure vessel diameter change upon ATP puffing (Figure 2C). Vessel diameters were measured using Chan-Vese segmentation (Figure 2D). In single puff recordings, normalized diameter changes at each ROI were overlaid to compare the responses of different vessel segments (Figure 2E). The distance from each ROI to the penetrating arteriole was calculated by hand-drawing the vascular skeleton (Figure 2F). Amplitudes and latencies of dilation and constriction at each ROI in single puff recordings were plotted over the calculated distances from the ROIs to the penetrating arteriole (Figure 2H-K). Vasodilation upon puffing propagated linearly with a speed of 14.69 µm/s (upstream) and of 2.8 µm/s (downstream), starting from the junction of 1st and 2nd order capillaries (Figure 2H). Vasoconstriction also propagated linearly at 3.92 µm/s, starting from the penetrating arteriole (Figure 2I). Maximal amplitude of both vasodilation and vasoconstriction occurred in 1st order capillaries (Figure 2J-K).
Furthermore, combining astrocyte-specific viral vector-carrying fluorescent calcium indicators and two-photon hyperstack imaging, astrocytic calcium responses to ATP puffing were investigated (Figure 3A, Supplementary Video 2). Rectangular ROIs were placed at astrocytic somata and processes. ATP induced a rise in intracellular calcium in astrocytic processes but not in astrocyte somata (Figure 3B).
Figure 1: Diagram of in vivo two-photon 3D imaging and glass micropipette puffing. (A) The anesthetized mouse is head-fixed to a metal bar and mechanically ventilated. End-tidal CO2 is monitored by a capnograph. Both whisker pad stimulation and micro-pipette puffing are used to induce vascular diameter changes. The glass micro-pipette holder is mounted on the stage plate. The femoral artery and vein are catheterized to monitor blood pressure and blood gases, and to infuse anesthesia and fluorescein, respectively. (B) The glass coverslip covers the craniotomy at an angle, which allows free movement of the pipette. The puffing micro-pipette is placed in proximity of a penetrating arteriole and its capillaries and contains a mixture of 10 µM Alexa 594 (red color in glass micro-pipette) and 1 mM ATP. The two-photon imaging is a fast and repetitive 3D volume scanning that includes the penetrating arteriole and the first few order capillaries, as well as neighboring astrocytes and pericytes. (C) Representative images of red fluorescent protein (RFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) using epi-fluorescent illumination are shown. They are used as ‘maps’ during pipette insertion. Red circles mark locations of 1st order capillaries with >5% vasodilation during whisker pad stimulation. Scale bar: 50 µm. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.
Figure 2: ATP puffing by micro-pipette induces vessel dilation, followed by constriction. (A) Cascade of planes in one representative image stack including penetrating arteriole and 1st and 2nd order capillaries. Pericytes are labeled with a red fluorophore (NG2-DsRed) and the vessel lumen is labeled with FITC-dextran (green). (B) Maximal intensity projection of the image stack. (C) Multiple uniquely colored regions of interest (ROIs) placed perpendicularly across the vasculature to measure the vessel diameter. (D) Top, representative fluorescent intensity over time at the dark blue ROI from panel C. The two red curves define the edges of the vessel wall. The vertical distance between the two red curves is the vessel diameter and is shown as a function of time (bottom). (E) Normalized diameter changes over time at each ROI in response to 1 mM ATP puffing. Measurements are based on a single experiment. (F) The vascular skeleton was manually traced by placing nodes along the vessels. (G) Amplitudes of dilation or constriction were defined as maximal positive or negative vascular response, respectively, during the recording session. The latency of dilations and constrictions were reported as time to half positive or negative maximum after puffing onset. (H-K) Graphs show the latency of dilation (H), the latency of constriction (I), the amplitude of dilation (J), and the amplitude of constriction (K) of all the ROIs shown in panel C versus the distance of each ROI from the penetrating arteriole. The dashed lines represent the linear fitting of upstream and downstream conductive responses. p.a.: penetrating arteriole. Scale bar: 10 µm. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.
Figure 3: ATP puffing by micro-pipette induces astrocytic calcium activities. (A) Astrocytic viral vectors carrying a fluorescent calcium indicator were injected in mouse somatosensory cortex three weeks prior to the experimental procedure. Image shows vessel lumina labeled with TRITC-dextran (red) and astrocytic calcium in green. (B) Multiple ROIs are placed at astrocytic somata and processes. Upon 1 mM ATP puffing, intracellular calcium increased in astrocytic processes but not in somata (dotted boxes), where calcium levels larger than the mean plus 1.5 x standard deviation were defined as significant. Scale bar: 10 µm. Please click here to view a larger version of this figure.
Supplementary Video 1: Time-series movie flattened from hyperstack imaging of vessels in response to puffing of 1 mM ATP. Green: FITC-dextran, staining vessel lumen. Red: NG2DsRed, staining pericytes. Please click here to view this video. (Right-click to download.)
Supplementary Video 2: Time-series movie flattened from hyperstack imaging of astrocytic calcium in response to puffing of 1 mM ATP. Green: astrocytic calcium. Red: TRITC-dextran, staining vessel lumen. Please click here to view this video. (Right-click to download.)
One challenge for vascular studies is the precise measurement of vessel diameters. The method we describe here used a motorized piezo objective to make fast and repetitive hyperstack imaging by two-photon microscopy. Firstly, this method allows repeated examinations of the penetrating arteriole, 1st order and 2nd order capillaries without loss of focus and led to the discovery of slowly conducted vascular responses in capillaries in vivo. Secondly, in combination with a viral vector injection technique, it enables us to investigate astrocytic calcium responses in three dimensions, which is necessary for studies of blood flow regulation.
This method is not without limitations. Firstly, a narrow rectangular field of view is defined before the 3D imaging in order to achieve high temporal resolution. This usually limits the imaging to first three orders of capillaries. Secondly, lasers of two-photon microscopes must be perfectly aligned. Laser misalignment will falsely de-center each frame and increase the vessel diameter measurement. Thirdly, the sampling rate of 3D imaging is capable of capturing slow CVRs and slow calcium changes in astrocytes. 1-2 Hz per stack is still not fast enough to study fast CVRs11 or fast calcium signals in astrocytes12,13.
Furthermore, in order to affect vessels of interest locally, we have optimized the procedure of precise insertion of a glass micro-pipette into a specific location of the mouse cerebral cortex. There are several critical steps for successful application of this method. Firstly, the angle of the glass micro-pipette holder must be carefully adjusted. It should allow the micro-pipette to freely maneuver beneath the objective and the glass coverslip above the exposed cortex. Secondly, during insertion of the glass micro-pipette into the agarose layer and the cortex, a small holding pressure is necessary to keep the pipette tip unclogged. However, caution must be exerted not to apply too great a holding pressure so that the compound does not leak before puffing. Thirdly, the puffing of the pipette should be tested in agarose layer above the brain to find the optimal pressure and duration releasing enough puffing compound upon one puff while not introducing an obvious displacement of cells and vessels due to mechanical pressure.
In order to make more precise measurement of CVR speed, volume scanning speed should be improved. There are other newly-developed volume-scanning microscopes, for example, a two-photon microscope with an acoustic optical deflector (AOD) scans as fast as 5 volumes per second with the same spatial resolution and volume size (email communication). Light-sheet microscopes scan even a larger volume size (350 µm x 800 µm x 100 µm) with 10 volumes per second14.
Our mouse preparation also has limitations. Acute mouse surgery may have potential complications. Pain relief medicine and anesthesia may affect the neurovascular responses. Acute neuroinflammation can also be triggered, resulting in microglial activation and leukocytosis in cortical tissues and vessels. Although the tip size of glass micro-pipettes is usually very small (<1 µm), the insertion procedure and ATP puffing could also potentially trigger microglial migration and embracement of insertion site within 0.5-1 hour post-insertion.
In conclusion, combination of 3D imaging in two-photon microscopy and localized puffing glass micro-pipette is an advanced tool to study neurovascular activities and their mechanism.
The authors have nothing to disclose.
This study was supported by the Lundbeck Foundation, the NOVO-Nordisk Foundation, the Danish Council for Independent Research | Medical Sciences, and the NORDEA Foundation Grant to the Center for Healthy Aging.
|Agarose||Sigma–Aldrich||A6138||Apply upon exposed cortex for protection|
|Alexa 594||Life Technologies||A-10438||Stain puffing compound to red fluorescent color|
|ATP||Sigma-Aldrich||A9187||Vasodilator and vasoconstrictor, puffing compound|
|Cyanoacrylate glue and activator||Loctite||Adhesives and SF7452||Glue for metal piece and coverglass|
|Eye lubricant||Neutral Ophtha, Ophtha A/S, Denmark||Keep the mouse eyes moisterized|
|FITC-dextran||Sigma-Aldrich||FD500S||Blood serum dye, green fluorescent color|
|NG2DsRed mice||Jackson Laboratory||8241||These transgenic mice express an red fluorescent protein variant (DsRed) under the control of the mouse NG2 (Cspg4) promoter|
|pZac2.1 gfaABC1D-lck-GCaMP6f||Addgene||52924-AAV5||Astrocyte specific viral vectors carrying genetically encoded calcium indicators|
|TRITC-dextran||Sigma-Aldrich||52194||Blood serum dye, red fluorescent color|
|List of Equipments|
|Air pump||WPI||PV830||Give air pressure to pipette puffing|
|Blood gas analyzer||Radiometer||ABL 700||Measure levels of blood gases|
|Blood pressure monitor||World Precision Instruments||BP-1||Monitor aterial blood pressure|
|Body temperature controller||CWE||Model TC-1000||Keep the mouse body temperature in physiological range|
|Capnograph||Harvard Apparatus||Type 340||Monitor the end-expiratory CO2 from the mouse|
|Electrical stimulator||A.M.P.I.||ISO-flex||Apply whisker pad stimulation|
|Mechanical ventilator||Harvard Apparatus||D-79232||Mechanically ventilate the mouse in physiological range|
|Micropipette puller||Sutter Instrument||P-97|
|Two-photon microscope||Femtonics Ltd||Femto3D-RC|
|List of Surgical Instruments|
|Angled and balanced tweezer||S&T AG||00595 FRAS-18 RM-8|
|Micro vascular clamp||S&T AG||462|
|Mouse vascular catheters||Verutech||100828|
- Abbott, N. J., Patabendige, A. A., Dolman, D. E., Yusof, S. R., Begley, D. J. Structure and Function of the Blood-Brain Barrier. Neurobiology of Disease. 37, (1), 13-25 (2010).
- Hall, C. N., et al. Capillary Pericytes Regulate Cerebral Blood Flow in Health and Disease. Nature. 508, (7494), 55-60 (2014).
- Cai, C., et al. Stimulation-Induced Increases in Cerebral Blood Flow and Local Capillary Vasoconstriction Depend on Conducted Vascular Responses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115, (25), 5796-5804 (2018).
- Stosiek, C., Garaschuk, O., Holthoff, K., Konnerth, A. In Vivo Two-Photon Calcium Imaging of Neuronal Networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100, (12), 7319-7324 (2003).
- Mathiesen, C., et al. Activity-Dependent Increases in Local Oxygen Consumption Correlate with Postsynaptic Currents in the Mouse Cerebellum in Vivo. The Journal of Neuroscience. 31, (50), 18327-18337 (2011).
- Kitamura, K., Judkewitz, B., Kano, M., Denk, W., Hausser, M. Targeted Patch-Clamp Recordings and Single-Cell Electroporation of Unlabeled Neurons in Vivo. Nature Methods. 5, (1), 61-67 (2008).
- Norup Nielsen, A., Lauritzen, M. Coupling and Uncoupling of Activity-Dependent Increases of Neuronal Activity and Blood Flow in Rat Somatosensory Cortex. The Journal of Physiology. 533, (3), 773-785 (2001).
- Wang, X. F., Huang, D. S., Xu, H. An Efficient Local Chan-Vese Model for Image Segmentation. Pattern Recognition. 43, (3), 603-618 (2010).
- Chan, T. E., Sandberg, B. Y., Vese, L. A. Active Contours without Edges for Vector-Valued Images. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. 11, (2), 130-141 (2000).
- Cetin, A., Komai, S., Eliava, M., Seeburg, P. H., Osten, P. Stereotaxic Gene Delivery in the Rodent Brain. Nature Protocols. 1, (6), 3166-3173 (2006).
- Chen, B. R., Kozberg, M. G., Bouchard, M. B., Shaik, M. A., Hillman, E. M. A Critical Role for the Vascular Endothelium in Functional Neurovascular Coupling in the Brain. Journal of the American Heart Association. 3, (3), 000787 (2014).
- Lind, B. L., Brazhe, A. R., Jessen, S. B., Tan, F. C., Lauritzen, M. J. Rapid Stimulus-Evoked Astrocyte Ca2+ Elevations and Hemodynamic Responses in Mouse Somatosensory Cortex in Vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110, (48), 4678-4687 (2013).
- Stobart, J. L., Ferrari, K. D., Barrett, M. J. P., Gluck, C., Stobart, M. J., Zuend, M., et al. Cortical Circuit Activity Evokes Rapid Astrocyte Calcium Signals on a Similar Timescale to Neurons. Neuron. 98, (4), 726 (2018).
- Bouchard, M. B., Voleti, V., Mendes, C. S., Lacefield, C., Grueber, W. B., Mann, R. S., et al. Swept Confocally-Aligned Planar Excitation (Scape) Microscopy for High Speed Volumetric Imaging of Behaving Organisms. Nature Photonics. 9, (2), 113-119 (2015).