In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Himabindu Gali in JoVE

Other articles by Himabindu Gali on PubMed

Roles of PCNA-binding and Ubiquitin-binding Domains in Human DNA Polymerase Eta in Translesion DNA Synthesis

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 19001268

Treatment of yeast and human cells with DNA-damaging agents elicits Rad6-Rad18-mediated monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at its Lys-164 residue [ubiquitin (Ub)-PCNA], and this PCNA modification is indispensable for promoting the access of translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases (Pols) to PCNA. However, the means by which K164-linked Ub modulates the proficiency of TLS Pols to bind PCNA and take over synthesis from the replicative Pol has remained unclear. One model that has gained considerable credence is that the TLS Pols bind PCNA at 2 sites, to the interdomain connector loop via their PCNA-interacting protein (PIP) domain and to the K164-linked Ub moiety via their Ub-binding domain (UBD). Specifically, this model postulates that the UBD-mediated binding of TLS Pols to the Ub moiety on PCNA is necessary for TLS. To test the validity of this model, we examine the contributions that the PIP and Ub-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domains of human Poleta make to its functional interaction with PCNA, its colocalization with PCNA in replication foci, and its role in TLS in vivo. We conclude from these studies that the binding to PCNA via its PIP domain is a prerequisite for Poleta's ability to function in TLS in human cells and that the direct binding of the Ub moiety on PCNA via its UBZ domain is not required. We discuss the possible role of the Ub moiety on PCNA in TLS.

Separate Domains of Rev1 Mediate Two Modes of DNA Damage Bypass in Mammalian Cells

Molecular and Cellular Biology. Jun, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19332561

The Y family DNA polymerase Rev1 has been proposed to play a regulatory role in the replication of damaged templates. To elucidate the mechanism by which Rev1 promotes DNA damage bypass, we have analyzed the progression of replication on UV light-damaged DNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts that contain a defined deletion in the N-terminal BRCT domain of Rev1 or that are deficient for Rev1. We provide evidence that Rev1 plays a coordinating role in two modes of DNA damage bypass, i.e., an early and a late pathway. The cells carrying the deletion in the BRCT domain are deficient for the early pathway, reflecting a role of the BRCT domain of Rev1 in mutagenic translesion synthesis. Rev1-deficient cells display a defect in both modes of DNA damage bypass. Despite the persistent defect in the late replicational bypass of fork-blocking (6-4)pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts, overall replication is not strongly affected by Rev1 deficiency. This results in almost completely replicated templates that contain gaps encompassing the photoproducts. These gaps are inducers of DNA damage signaling leading to an irreversible G(2) arrest. Our results corroborate a model in which Rev1-mediated DNA damage bypass at postreplicative gaps quenches irreversible DNA damage responses.

Mammalian Polymerase Zeta is Essential for Post-replication Repair of UV-induced DNA Lesions

DNA Repair. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19783229

DNA polymerase zeta is believed to be an essential constituent of DNA damage tolerance, comprising several pathways that allow the replication of DNA templates containing unrepaired damage. We wanted to better define the role of polymerase zeta in DNA damage tolerance in mammalian cells. To this aim we have investigated replication of ultraviolet light-damaged DNA templates in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient for Rev3, the catalytic subunit of polymerase zeta. We found that Rev3 is important for a post-replication repair pathway of helix-distorting [6-4]pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts and, to a lesser extent, of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Unlike its partner Rev1, Rev3 appears not to be involved in an immediate translesion synthesis pathway at a stalled replication fork. The deficiency of Rev3(-/-) MEFs in post-replication repair of different photoproducts contributes to the extreme sensitivity of these cells to UV light.

Role of SUMO Modification of Human PCNA at Stalled Replication Fork

Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22457066

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be generated not only by reactive agents but also as a result of replication fork collapse at unrepaired DNA lesions. Whereas ubiquitylation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) facilitates damage bypass, modification of yeast PCNA by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) controls recombination by providing access for the Srs2 helicase to disrupt Rad51 nucleoprotein filaments. However, in human cells, the roles of PCNA SUMOylation have not been explored. Here, we characterize the modification of human PCNA by SUMO in vivo as well as in vitro. We establish that human PCNA can be SUMOylated at multiple sites including its highly conserved K164 residue and that SUMO modification is facilitated by replication factor C (RFC). We also show that expression of SUMOylation site PCNA mutants leads to increased DSB formation in the Rad18(-/-) cell line where the effect of Rad18-dependent K164 PCNA ubiquitylation can be ruled out. Moreover, expression of PCNA-SUMO1 fusion prevents DSB formation as well as inhibits recombination if replication stalls at DNA lesions. These findings suggest the importance of SUMO modification of human PCNA in preventing replication fork collapse to DSB and providing genome stability.

Single Cell Analysis of Human RAD18-dependent DNA Post-replication Repair by Alkaline Bromodeoxyuridine Comet Assay

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23936422

Damage to DNA can block replication progression resulting in gaps in the newly synthesized DNA. Cells utilize a number of post-replication repair (PRR) mechanisms such as the RAD18 controlled translesion synthesis or template switching to overcome the discontinuities formed opposite the DNA lesions and to complete DNA replication. Gaining more insights into the role of PRR genes promotes better understanding of DNA damage tolerance and of how their malfunction can lead to increased genome instability and cancer. However, a simple and efficient method to characterise gene specific PRR deficiencies at a single cell level has not been developed. Here we describe the so named BrdU comet PRR assay to test the contribution of human RAD18 to PRR at a single cell level, by which we kinetically characterized the consequences of the deletion of human RAD18 on the replication of UV-damaged DNA. Moreover, we demonstrate the capability of our method to evaluate PRR at a single cell level in unsynchronized cell population.

Human HLTF Mediates Postreplication Repair by Its HIRAN Domain-dependent Replication Fork Remodelling

Nucleic Acids Research. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26350214

Defects in the ability to respond properly to an unrepaired DNA lesion blocking replication promote genomic instability and cancer. Human HLTF, implicated in error-free replication of damaged DNA and tumour suppression, exhibits a HIRAN domain, a RING domain, and a SWI/SNF domain facilitating DNA-binding, PCNA-polyubiquitin-ligase, and dsDNA-translocase activities, respectively. Here, we investigate the mechanism of HLTF action with emphasis on its HIRAN domain. We found that in cells HLTF promotes the filling-in of gaps left opposite damaged DNA during replication, and this postreplication repair function depends on its HIRAN domain. Our biochemical assays show that HIRAN domain mutant HLTF proteins retain their ubiquitin ligase, ATPase and dsDNA translocase activities but are impaired in binding to a model replication fork. These data and our structural study indicate that the HIRAN domain recruits HLTF to a stalled replication fork, and it also provides the direction for the movement of the dsDNA translocase motor domain for fork reversal. In more general terms, we suggest functional similarities between the HIRAN, the OB, the HARP2, and other domains found in certain motor proteins, which may explain why only a subset of DNA translocases can carry out fork reversal.

Single Molecule Analysis of Laser Localized Interstrand Crosslinks

Frontiers in Genetics. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27242893

DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) block unwinding of the double helix, and have always been regarded as major challenges to replication and transcription. Compounds that form these lesions are very toxic and are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. We have developed two strategies, both based on immunofluorescence (IF), for studying cellular responses to ICLs. The basis of each is psoralen, a photoactive (by long wave ultraviolet light, UVA) DNA crosslinking agent, to which we have linked an antigen tag. In the one approach, we have taken advantage of DNA fiber and immuno-quantum dot technologies for visualizing the encounter of replication forks with ICLs induced by exposure to UVA lamps. In the other, psoralen ICLs are introduced into nuclei in live cells in regions of interest defined by a UVA laser. The antigen tag can be displayed by conventional IF, as can the recruitment and accumulation of DNA damage response proteins to the laser localized ICLs. However, substantial difference between the technologies creates considerable uncertainty as to whether conclusions from one approach are applicable to those of the other. In this report, we have employed the fiber/quantum dot methodology to determine lesion density and spacing on individual DNA molecules carrying laser localized ICLs. We have performed the same measurements on DNA fibers with ICLs induced by exposure of psoralen to UVA lamps. Remarkably, we find little difference in the adduct distribution on fibers prepared from cells exposed to the different treatment protocols. Furthermore, there is considerable similarity in patterns of replication in the vicinity of the ICLs introduced by the two techniques.

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