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Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two Kidneys. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the Adrenal cortex producing Steroids and the Adrenal medulla producing Neurotransmitters.

Isolation, Fixation, and Immunofluorescence Imaging of Mouse Adrenal Glands

1Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes), University of Michigan Health System, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Health System, 3Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Health System, 4Endocrine Oncology Program, University of Michigan Health System, 5Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Health System

JoVE 58530

 Immunology and Infection

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis

JoVE 10879

The response to stress—be it physical or psychological, acute or chronic—involves activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis is part of the neuroendocrine system because it involves both neuronal and hormonal communication. Its function is to regulate homeostatic systems—metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune—providing the necessary means to respond to a stressor. In response to stress, the neurons in the hypothalamus release corticotropin-releasing hormone, or CRH, into the bloodstream. CRH takes a short journey to the pituitary gland where it stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH. The site of action for ACTH are the adrenal glands which lay just on the surface of the kidneys. When stimulated, the adrenal glands release two types of stress messages. Neural stimulation initiates the first message—the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla. This activates the sympathetic nervous system resulting in elevated heart rate, blood flow, and respiration—processes designed to activate states of alertness and arousal. These two chemicals are also referred to as adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. ACTH initiates the second message—the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex. In humans, cortisol is the primary hormone

 Core: Endocrine System

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The …

 Lab Animal Research

In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 2Department of Nursing, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Human Science, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 6Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 7Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 54532

 Cancer Research

Vagus Nerve Stimulation As an Adjunctive Neurostimulation Tool in Treatment-resistant Depression

1Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 2Universitätsklinikum Bonn AöR, Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie, 3Universitätsklinik für Neurochirurgie am Evangelischen Krankenhaus Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, 4Klinik für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen und Gerontopsychiatrie, Abteilung für medizinische Psychologie, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, 5Psychiatrische und Psychotherapeutische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen

JoVE 58264

 Medicine

A Novel Method: Super-selective Adrenal Venous Sampling

1Department of Radiology, Nerima Hikarigaoka Hospital, 2Department of Uro-Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 3Endocrinology & Diabetes Center, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, 4Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, 5Department of Medical Education, School of Medicine, California University of Science and Medicine, 6Department of Pathology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 7Department of Radiology, Yokohama Rosai Hospital

JoVE 55716

 Medicine

Reliable and High Efficiency Extraction of Kidney Immune Cells

1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia and Harry S Truman Memorial Veteran's Hospital, 2Division of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia and Harry S Truman Memorial Veteran's Hospital, 3Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia and Harry S Truman Memorial Veteran's Hospital

JoVE 54368

 Immunology and Infection

Models of Bone Metastasis

1Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (VISN 9), 4Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 5Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 4260

 Medicine
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