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Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial gray matter of the cerebellum. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum. (Dorland, 28th ed)

A Stainless Protocol for High Quality RNA Isolation from Laser Capture Microdissected Purkinje Cells in the Human Post-Mortem Cerebellum

1Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, 2Division of Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Yale University, 3Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, 4Center for Neuroepidemiology and Clinical Neurological Research, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58953


 JoVE In-Press

Eye Exam

JoVE 10149

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

Proper evaluation of the eyes in a general practice setting involves vision testing, orbit inspection, and ophthalmoscopic examination. Before beginning the exam, it is crucial to be familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the eye. The upper eyelid should be slightly over the iris, but it shouldn't cover the pupil when open; the lower lid lies below the iris. The sclera normally appears white or slightly buff in color. The appearance of conjunctiva, a transparent membrane covering the anterior sclera and the inner eyelids, is a sensitive indicator of ocular disorders, such as infections and inflammation. The tear-producing lacrimal gland lies above and lateral to the eyeball. Tears spread down and across the eye to drain medially into two lacrimal puncta before passing into the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct to the nose. The iris divides the anterior from the posterior chamber. Muscles of the iris control the size of the pupil, and muscles of the ciliary body behind it control the focal length of the lens. The ciliary body also produces aqueous humor, which largely determines intraocular pressure (Figure 1). Cranial nerve


 Physical Examinations II

CRISPR-mediated Loss of Function Analysis in Cerebellar Granule Cells Using In Utero Electroporation-based Gene Transfer

1Division of Molecular Neurogenetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, 2Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 3Hopp-Children's Cancer Center at the NCT Heidelberg (KiTZ), 4Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 5Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital

JoVE 57311


 Developmental Biology

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216


 Neuroscience

Automatic Detection of Highly Organized Theta Oscillations in the Murine EEG

1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, 2Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, 3Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 4Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices

JoVE 55089


 Behavior

Bilateral Assessment of the Corticospinal Pathways of the Ankle Muscles Using Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Health Sciences and Research, Medical University of South Carolina, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4Department of Health Professions, Medical University of South Carolina, 5Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, 6Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 7Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina

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JoVE 58944


 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations

1University of Florence, 2INSERM INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire INMED, 5Royal Children's Hospital, 6Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 7University of Melbourne, 8Plateforme postgenomique INMED, 9University of Pavia, 10Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, 11Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, 12IRCCS Casimiro Mondino Foundation, 13Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 14IRCCS Stella Maris, 15Columbia University

JoVE 53570


 Neuroscience

Rapid Detection of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes in Human Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs)

1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Services, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 5Department of Genetics, Rutgers University

JoVE 56628


 Developmental Biology

The Endoscope-Assisted Minimally Invasive Retro-Sigmoid Approach (EAMIRSA): A Combination of Techniques for Improving Middle Skull Base Surgery

1Permanent Temporal Bone Dissection Laboratory, University of Perugia, 2Otolaryngology Department, Meyer Children Hospital, 3Highland Instruments, 4Otolaryngology Department, Cochlear Implant Unit, Santobono Children Hospital, 5Otolaryngology Department, Ospedale Civile of Mantua

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JoVE 58522


 JoVE In-Press

Rat Model of Widespread Cerebral Cortical Demyelination Induced by an Intracerebral Injection of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

1Research Unit of Experimental Neurotraumatology, Institute of Neurosurgery, Medical University Graz, 2Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, 3Centre for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 4Centre for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet

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JoVE 57879


 JoVE In-Press

Movement-Related Changes in Cortico-Pallidal Coupling Revealed by Simultaneous Intracranial and Magnetoencephalography Recordings in Dystonia Patients

1Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Institut Berlin

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56659


 JoVE In-Press

Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition

1College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Division of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 4Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute

JoVE 56789


 Neuroscience

Subpial Adeno-associated Virus 9 (AAV9) Vector Delivery in Adult Mice

1Neuroregeneration Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 2Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 3Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Diego, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences

JoVE 55770


 Neuroscience

Fiber Connections of the Supplementary Motor Area Revisited: Methodology of Fiber Dissection, DTI, and Three Dimensional Documentation

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Josephs Hospital and Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, University of Istanbul

JoVE 55681


 Neuroscience

Large-scale Recording of Neurons by Movable Silicon Probes in Behaving Rodents

1Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of New Jersey, 2Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, Collège de France, 3Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howards Hughes Medical Institute, 4Deptartment of Psychology, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

JoVE 3568


 Neuroscience

Micron-scale Resolution Optical Tomography of Entire Mouse Brains with Confocal Light Sheet Microscopy

1European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy (LENS), 2Integrated Research Centre, University Campus Bio-medico of Rome, 3DAEMI, University of Cassino, 4National Institute of Optics (CNR-INO), 5Allen Institute for Brain Science, 6Department of Physics, University of Florence, 7ICON Foundation, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy

JoVE 50696


 Neuroscience

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