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Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that develops from the telencephalon and folds into gyri. It reaches its highest development in man and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.

What is a Sensory System?

JoVE 10849

Sensory systems detect stimuli—such as light and sound waves—and transduce them into neural signals that can be interpreted by the nervous system. In addition to external stimuli detected by the senses, some sensory systems detect internal stimuli—such as the proprioceptors in muscles and tendons that send feedback about limb position.

Sensory systems include the visual, auditory, gustatory (taste), olfactory (smell), somatosensory (touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception), and vestibular (balance, spatial orientation) systems. All sensory systems have receptor cells that are specialized to detect a particular type of stimulus. For example, hair cells in the inner ear have cilia that move in the presence of sound waves, while olfactory receptor neurons in the nasal cavity have receptors that bind to odorant molecules. The presence of an appropriate stimulus triggers electrochemical changes in the nervous system. This stimulus typically changes the membrane potential of a sensory neuron, triggering an action potential. The information is then transmitted from the sensory organ to the spinal cord and then the brain, or directly to the brain (as in the visual system). The different types of sensory information—also called modalities—travel in different pathways through the central nervous system, but most

 Core: Sensory Systems

Hearing

JoVE 10853

When we hear a sound, our nervous system is detecting sound waves—pressure waves of mechanical energy traveling through a medium. The frequency of the wave is perceived as pitch, while the amplitude is perceived as loudness.

Sound waves are collected by the external ear and amplified as they travel through the ear canal. When sounds reach the junction between the outer and middle ear, they vibrate the tympanic membrane—the eardrum. The resulting mechanical energy causes the attached ossicles—a set of small bones in the middle ear—to move. The ossicles vibrate the oval window, the outermost part of the inner ear. In the labyrinth of the inner ear, the sound wave energy is transferred to the cochlea—a coiled structure in the inner ear—causing the fluid within it to move. The cochlea contains receptors that transduce mechanical sound waves into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. Sounds within the hearing range vibrate the basilar membrane in the cochlea and are detected by hair cells on the organ of Corti, the site of transduction. Along the primary auditory pathway, the signals are sent through the auditory nerve to the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. From here, they travel to the inferior colliculus of the midbrain and up to the thalamus, and then to the primary auditory cortex. Along this pat

 Core: Sensory Systems

Vision

JoVE 10858

Vision is the result of light being detected and transduced into neural signals by the retina of the eye. This information is then further analyzed and interpreted by the brain. First, light enters the front of the eye and is focused by the cornea and lens onto the retina—a thin sheet of neural tissue lining the back of the eye. Because of refraction through the convex lens of the eye, images are projected onto the retina upside-down and reversed. Light is absorbed by the rod and cone photoreceptor cells at the back of the retina, causing a decrease in their rate of neurotransmitter release. In addition to detecting photons of light, color information is also encoded here, since different types of cones respond maximally to different wavelengths of light. The photoreceptors then send visual information to bipolar cells near the middle of the retina, which is followed by projection to ganglion cells at the front of the retina. Horizontal and amacrine cells mediate lateral interactions between these cell types, integrating information from multiple photoreceptors. This integration aids in the initial processing of visual information, such as detecting simple features, like edges. Along with glial cells, the axons of the retinal ganglion cells make up the optic nerve, which transmits visual information to the brain. The optic nerve partially cro

 Core: Sensory Systems

Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

1Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 3Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 4School of Medicine, King's College London

JoVE 52773

 Neuroscience

The Vestibular System

JoVE 10856

The vestibular system is a set of inner ear structures that provide a sense of balance and spatial orientation. This system is comprised of structures within the labyrinth of the inner ear, including the cochlea and two otolith organs—the utricle and saccule. The labyrinth also contains three semicircular canals—superior, posterior, and horizontal—that are oriented on different planes. All of these structures contain vestibular hair cells—the sensory receptors of the vestibular system. In the otolith organs, the hair cells sit beneath a gelatinous layer called the otolithic membrane, which contains otoconia—calcium carbonate crystals—making it relatively heavy. When the head is tilted, the otolithic membrane shifts, bending the stereocilia on the hair cells. In the semicircular canals, the cilia of the hair cells are contained within a gelatinous cupula, which is surrounded by endolymph fluid. When the head experiences movements, such as rotational acceleration and deceleration, the fluid moves, bending the cupula and the cilia within it. Similar to the auditory hair cells, displacement towards the tallest cilium causes mechanically-gated ion channels to open, depolarizing the cell and increasing neurotransmitter release. Displacement towards the shortest cilium hyperpolarizes the cell and decreases neurotr

 Core: Sensory Systems

Visual Attention: fMRI Investigation of Object-based Attentional Control

JoVE 10272

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel— University of Southern California


The human visual system is incredibly sophisticated and capable of processing large amounts of information very quickly. However, the brain's capacity to process information is not an unlimited resource. Attention, the ability to…

 Neuropsychology

Decision-making and the Iowa Gambling Task

JoVE 10208

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California


Decision-making is an important component of human executive function, in which a choice about a course of action or cognition is made from many possibilities. Damage to the inferior parts of the frontal lobes can affect a person's ability…

 Neuropsychology

Color Afterimages

JoVE 10194

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University


Human color vision is impressive. People with normal color vision can tell apart millions of individual hues. Most amazingly, this ability is achieved with fairly simple hardware.


Part of the power of human color vision comes from a…

 Sensation and Perception

Electro-encephalography (EEG)

JoVE 5420

EEG is a non-invasive technique that can measure brain activity. The neural activity generates electrical signals that are recorded by EEG electrodes placed on the scalp. When an individual is engaged in performing a cognitive task, brain activity changes and these changes can be recorded on the EEG graph. Therefore, it is a powerful tool for cognitive scientist aiming to better understand…

 Behavioral Science

Compound Administration III

JoVE 10215

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. However, certain protocols may require the use of less commonly used routes, including intradermal, intranasal, and intracranial injections.…

 Lab Animal Research

An Introduction to Neuroanatomy

JoVE 5204

Neuroanatomy is the study of nervous system structures and how they relate to function. One focus of neuroanatomists is the macroscopic structures within the central and peripheral nervous systems, like the cortical folds on the surface of the brain. However, scientists in this field are also interested in the microscopic relationships between neurons and glia - the two…

 Neuroscience

How to Measure Cortical Folding from MR Images: a Step-by-Step Tutorial to Compute Local Gyrification Index

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva School of Medicine, 2Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, 4Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 3417

 Medicine

A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations

1University of Florence, 2INSERM INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire INMED, 5Royal Children's Hospital, 6Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 7University of Melbourne, 8Plateforme postgenomique INMED, 9University of Pavia, 10Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, 11Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, 12IRCCS Casimiro Mondino Foundation, 13Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 14IRCCS Stella Maris, 15Columbia University

JoVE 53570

 Neuroscience

Evaluation of Vascular Control Mechanisms Utilizing Video Microscopy of Isolated Resistance Arteries of Rats

1Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia, Texas Wesleyan University, 5Office of Research, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 56133

 Medicine

Brain State-dependent Brain Stimulation with Real-time Electroencephalography-Triggered Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Neurology & Stroke, University of Tübingen, 2Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, 3Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University

JoVE 59711

 Behavior

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan

JoVE 50309

 Medicine

Comprehensive Autopsy Program for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 3Mellen Center for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic

JoVE 59511

 Neuroscience

Generation and On-Demand Initiation of Acute Ictal Activity in Rodent and Human Tissue

1Division of Fundamental Neurobiology, Krembil Research Institute, 2Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 3Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 4Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 5Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 6Department of Physiology, University of Toronto

JoVE 57952

 Neuroscience

Rapid Detection of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes in Human Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs)

1Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Services, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4The Child Health Institute of NJ, Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 5Department of Genetics, Rutgers University

JoVE 56628

 Developmental Biology

Translational Brain Mapping at the University of Rochester Medical Center: Preserving the Mind Through Personalized Brain Mapping

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, 2Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, 3Public Relations and Communications, University of Rochester Medical Center, 4MOSS Rehabilitation Research Institute, Cognitive Neuroscience, 5University of Rochester Medical Center, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, 7Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 8Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester Medical Center

JoVE 59592

 Neuroscience

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727

 Medicine

Brain Infarct Segmentation and Registration on MRI or CT for Lesion-symptom Mapping

1Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 2Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3BrainNow Research Institute, 4Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, University Hospital, LMU Munich

JoVE 59653

 Behavior

Antibody Binding Specificity for Kappa (Vκ) Light Chain-containing Human (IgM) Antibodies: Polysialic Acid (PSA) Attached to NCAM as a Case Study

1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for Regenerative Medicine, Neuroregeneration, Mayo Clinic, 4Division of Neonatal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic

JoVE 54139

 Immunology and Infection
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