1Department of Medicine, Division of Liver Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Division of Nephrology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 4Departments of Medicine, Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 5Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Ghent University Hospital, 2Department of Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent University, 3Department of Virology, Parasitology, and Immunology, Ghent University, 4Pathlicon
1Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, Research Centre for Reproductive Health, the Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, 3Department of Immunology & Microbiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS
Immunology and Infection
1Department of Internal Medicine V, Innsbruck Medical University, 2Oncotyrol GmbH, 3Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, 4Division of Vascular Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute
1Birth Defects Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Blizard Institute, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam
1Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, 2Biochemistry, Western University, 3Surgery, Western University, 4Oncology, Western University
1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Women's Guild Lung Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Immunology and Infection
1Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics (CMMG), Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine
1Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, University Hospital rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Institute for Signal Processing, University of Lübeck, 3Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, University Hospital Zürich, 4FONDAP Center for Genome Regulation, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile
1Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 2Montreal Heart Institute
1Vascular Biology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School
1Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California at Riverside
1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies, Baghdad University, 3Department of Plastic, Hand and Microsurgery, Sana Klinikum Hof GmbH
1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University
One strength of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a model organism for developmental biology is that the embryo develops outside the female and is easily accessible for experimental manipulation. Many techniques allow scientists to examine chicken embryos inside the eggshell (in ovo), but embryonic access can be limited at later stages of development. Fortunately, chicks can also be cultured ex ovo, or outside of the eggshell. The major advantage to ex ovo culture is greater access to tissues that might otherwise be obstructed by the shell or the orientation of the chick within the egg, especially for embryos in later stages of development.
There are two principle strategies to ex ovo culture: whole yolk culture and explant culture. During whole yolk culture, the eggshell is cracked and the contents are transferred to a simple housing vessel. However, in explant culture methods, the embryo is excised from the yolk and mounted in the housing vessel to maintain membrane tension, which is important for normal development.
Basic protocols for whole-yolk and explant techniques will be provided in this video, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of culturing chicks outside of the shell. Finally, experimental applications of ex ovo culture will be discussed, demonstrating how this …
The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) provides an economical and accessible model for developmental biology research. Chicks develop rapidly and are amenable to genetic and physiological manipulations, allowing researchers to investigate developmental pathways down to the cell and molecular levels.
This video review of chick development begins by describing the process of egg fertilization and formation within the chicken reproductive tract. Next, the most commonly used chick staging nomenclature, the Hamburger Hamilton staging series, is introduced. Major events in chick development are then outlined, including the dramatic cellular movements known as gastrulation that form the three major cell layers: The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Cells from these layers go on to generate all the tissues within the organism, as well as extraembryonic membranes, which are necessary for the transport of gases, nutrients, and wastes within the eggshell. To conclude the discussion, some exciting techniques will be presented as strategies for studying chick development in greater detail.…
The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an extremely valuable model organism for research in developmental biology, in part because most of their development takes place within an egg that is incubated outside of the mother. As a result, early developmental stages can be accessed, visualized and manipulated by simply creating a small hole in the eggshell. Since billions of chickens are raised worldwide for meat and egg production, scientists can easily and economically acquire large numbers of fertilized eggs throughout the year. Furthermore, chickens share significant genetic conservation with humans, so the genetic mechanisms that have been found to regulate chicken development are also relevant to our own biology.
This video focuses on introducing the domesticated chicken as a scientific model. The discussion begins with a review of chicken phylogeny, revealing the features that make them amniotes, like other birds, reptiles, and mammals. Highlights from the millennia of chicken research will be presented, ranging from Aristotle’s postulates about the function of extra-embryonic membranes to more recent, Nobel-prize winning discoveries in neuroscience. Additionally, some current examples of studies performed in chicken embryos will be provided, such as in vivo tracking of cell movements during development and the recruitment of…