Preservation of laboratory samples, specimens, and reagents using extreme cold is routinely performed in biomedical research labs. This video will discuss some of the methods for keeping laboratory samples cold and will explain the correct cooling method to use for each experimental requirement.
For example, cooling agents, such as ice and dry ice, are typically used when keeping samples cold during experiments. This video discusses the physical properties of the most commonly used cooling agents, as well as safety precautions for working with them.
When it comes to keeping samples cold in between experiments, cooling equipment, including laboratory grade refrigerators and freezers can be used to preserve samples for extended period of time. Also discussed in this video are types of samples and reagents that can be stored in the commonly-available laboratory cooling equipment.
Finally, the concept of cryopreservation is introduced as a process through which tissues, cells, and biomolecules are cooled to sub-zero temperatures, thereby effectively stopping all sample-degrading biological activity. Several methods of cryopreservation are discussed that minimize or eliminate the formation of damaging ice crystals.…
General Laboratory Techniques
1Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 2Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
1MSTP, Neuroscience Program, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Washington University Pain Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St. Louis
1Department of Genetics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Neuroscience Program, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, 3ProDev Engineering, 4Genes and Development Program, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, 5Section of Neurobiology, University of Southern California
1Chemical and Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University
1Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, 3Research Institute of Genome-Based Biofactory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 4The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science, and Nutrition, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
1Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 2Environmental Processes Branch, Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 3Terrestrial and Cryospheric Scienes Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 4Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Fairbanks, AK
1Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, NIDA, NIH, DHHS, 2Division of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University
1Department of Infectious Diseases, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Chemistry, City College of New York
1Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 2Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology
1Department of Chemistry, York University, 2The Centre for Research on Biomolecular Interactions, York University
1Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 2Children's Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 4Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 5Department of Paediatrics, University of Western Ontario
1Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine
1Multi Organ Transplant Program, Department of Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 3Department of General, Visceral & Transplant Surgery, University Medical Center Mainz, 4Department of Abdominal, Vascular & Transplant Surgery, Merheim Medical Center Cologne, 5Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, Toronto General Hospital, 6Departments of Surgery (Urology) & Physiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 7Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
1Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University
1Department of Surgery - Division of General Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina
1Emmy Noether Group, Institute of Zoology, University of Cologne
Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University
This protocol serves as a guide in the synthesis of two metal complexes featuring the ligand 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf): M(dppf)Cl2, where M = Ni or Pd. While both of these transition metal complexes are 4-coordinate, they exhibit different geometries at the metal center. Using molecular orbital (MO) theory in conjunction with 1H NMR and Evans method, we will determine the geometry of these two compounds.…
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2Research Triangle MRSEC, Duke University
1Centre for Human Drug Research (CHDR)
1Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 2Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 3DFG Excellence Cluster 171, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 4German Hearing Center Hannover
1Section of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Surgical Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 3Center of Engineering in Medicine/Surgical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Shriners Burns Hospital, 4Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame
1Molecular Imaging Laboratory, MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, 2Center for Drug Discovery, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 3Perkin Elmer
1Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, UMR 7339 CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université, 2Centre de Recherches en Oncologie Biologique et Oncopharmacologie, UMR 911 INSERM, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université
Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jimmy Franco - Merrimack College
Recrystallization is a technique used to purify solid compounds.1 Solids tend to be more soluble in hot liquids than in cold liquids. During recrystallization, an impure solid compound is dissolved in a hot liquid until the solution is saturated, and then the liquid is allowed to cool.2 The compound should then form relatively pure crystals. Ideally, any impurities that are present will remain in the solution and will not be incorporated into the growing crystals (Figure 1). The crystals can then be removed from the solution by filtration. Not all of the compound is recoverable — some will remain in the solution and will be lost.
Recrystallization is not generally thought of as a separation technique; rather, it is a purification technique in which a small amount of an impurity is removed from a compound. However, if the solubility properties of two compounds are sufficiently different, recrystallization can be used to separate them, even if they are present in nearly equal amounts. Recrystallization works best when most impurities have already been removed by another method, such as extraction or column chromatography.
1Sustainable Transport Unit, Institute for Energy, Transport and Climate, Joint Research Centre
1APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, 2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Basel, 3Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Ulm
Immunology and Infection