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Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.

Building Up a High-throughput Screening Platform to Assess the Heterogeneity of HER2 Gene Amplification in Breast Cancers

1Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2School of Medicine, University of Milan, 3School of Biology, University of Pavia, 4Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 5Division of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 6Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan

JoVE 56686

 Immunology and Infection

Target Cell Pre-enrichment and Whole Genome Amplification for Single Cell Downstream Characterization

1Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Graz, 2Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, 3Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM, 4Department of Tumor Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 5Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg

JoVE 56394

 Cancer Research

Analysis of Combinatorial miRNA Treatments to Regulate Cell Cycle and Angiogenesis

1School of Basic Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana Monroe, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 59460

 Cancer Research

Identification of Mouse and Human Antibody Repertoires by Next-Generation Sequencing

1Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 2Center for Influenza Virus Research, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 3School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 4Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 5Division of Infectious Diseases Pathology, Department of Global Infectious Diseases, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 6Division of Molecular Pathobiology, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 7Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 8Global Station for Zoonosis Control, GI-CoRE, Hokkaido University, 9Department of Immunology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 10Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba

JoVE 58804

 Immunology and Infection

A Method to Assess Bacteriocin Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Mice

1Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 3Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 4Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)

JoVE 56053

 Biology

Single Cell Micro-aspiration as an Alternative Strategy to Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting for Giant Virus Mixture Separation

1Microbes, Evolution, Phylogeny and Infection (MEΦI), Aix-Marseille Université UM63, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD 198, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), 2Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire (IHU) - Méditerranée Infection

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60148

 JoVE In-Press

Generation of a Gene-disrupted Streptococcus mutans Strain Without Gene Cloning

1Department of Translational Research, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 2Endowed Department of International Oral Health Science (affiliated with Department of Translational Research), Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 3Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

JoVE 56319

 Genetics

Multiplex PCR Assay for Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec Types I to V in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Alberta Health Services / Calgary Laboratory Services / University of Calgary, 2Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, 4Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, 5The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary

JoVE 50779

 Immunology and Infection

Tissue Collection of Bats for -Omics Analyses and Primary Cell Culture

1Department of Geology & Geophysics, Yale University, 2Department of Ecology & Evolution, Stony Brook University, 3Neurogenetics of Vocal Communication, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, 4School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, 5School of Biology & Environmental Science, University College Dublin, 6Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, 7Consortium for Inter-Disciplinary Environmental Research, Stony Brook University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 59505

 JoVE In-Press
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