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Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.

Building Up a High-throughput Screening Platform to Assess the Heterogeneity of HER2 Gene Amplification in Breast Cancers

1Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 2School of Medicine, University of Milan, 3School of Biology, University of Pavia, 4Division of Breast Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 5Division of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 6Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan

JoVE 56686

 Immunology and Infection

Generation of a Gene-disrupted Streptococcus mutans Strain Without Gene Cloning

1Department of Translational Research, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 2Endowed Department of International Oral Health Science (affiliated with Department of Translational Research), Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 3Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

JoVE 56319


Target Cell Pre-Enrichment and Whole Genome Amplification for Single-Cell Downstream Characterization

1Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Graz, 2Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, 3Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM, 4Department of Tumor Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 5Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg

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JoVE 56394

 JoVE In-Press

Multiplex PCR Assay for Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec Types I to V in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Alberta Health Services / Calgary Laboratory Services / University of Calgary, 2Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, 4Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, 5The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary

JoVE 50779

 Immunology and Infection

A Method to Assess Bacteriocin Effects on the Gut Microbiota of Mice

1Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), 3Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 4Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)

JoVE 56053


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